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DEVELOPING UNESCO’S INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS: HELP UNESCO TO ASSESS AND IMPROVE THE INTERNET

1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 DEVELOPING UNESCO’S INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS: HELP UNESCO TO ASSESS AND IMPROVE THE INTERNET

2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 0 INTRODUCTION

3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 This consultation document invites stakeholders to contribute to UNESCO’s project to develop indicators to assess the Internet in any country, and highlight areas where improvements can be made. More information about the project can be found online.[1]

4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 0 BACKGROUND

5 Leave a comment on paragraph 5 0 UNESCO launched its concept of Internet Universality in 2013. This concept, which was endorsed by UNESCO’s General Conference in 2015, embraces four principles which have been and should continue to be fundamental to the development of the Internet and its role in advancing the world’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):

6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 R – that the Internet is based on human Rights
O – that it is Open
A – that it should be Accessible to all
M – that it is nurtured by Multistakeholder participation.

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 Together these are known as the ROAM Principles.

8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 UNESCO intends to adopt a framework of Internet Universality indicators to assist governments and other stakeholders to assess their national Internet environments and develop policies to advance these Principles. These indicators will be comparable to the Media Development Indicators adopted by UNESCO in 2008.[2] They are intended for use by stakeholders in interested countries where resources can be mobilised for the necessary research. The aim of applying the indicators is to identify gaps within a country in relation to Internet Universality, and to make appropriate recommendations concerning policy and practice. They are not intended to rank countries in comparison with one another.

9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 This document follows the first phase of consultation, which lasted from 29 March to 31 October 2017 and was concerned with general principles. It included 24 face-to-face consultation meetings in 21 countries and attracted 165 online contributions.

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 The second phase of consultation, which will last from 1 December 2017 to 15 March 2018, provides an opportunity to comment on the proposed indicator framework and indicators set out in this document. A final report, building on this second phase and pre-testing of proposals, will be submitted to UNESCO at the end of April 2018 and considered in September 2018 by the International Council of its International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC).[3]

11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 Stakeholders are invited, in this second consultation, to respond to the following three questions by 15 March 2018. It will not be possible to consider contributions received after this date.

  1. 12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0
  2. Are there any additional themes, questions or indicators which you believe should be included in the framework?
  3. Are there any suggestions that you wish to make in respect of the proposed themes, questions and indicators which are included in the framework as it stands?
  4. What sources and means of verification would you recommend, from your experience, in relation to any of the questions and indicators that have been proposed?

13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 THE INDICATOR FRAMEWORK

14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 The indicator framework which is proposed in this document is structured around the four ROAM Principles, alongside Cross-Cutting Indicators concerned with gender and the needs of children and young people, sustainable development, trust and security, and legal and ethical aspects of the Internet. Together, these form the ROAMX indicator framework which is illustrated in Figure 1 below.

15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 In addition, the framework includes a number of contextual indicators concerned with the demographic, social and economic characteristics of a country, which are intended to help users to understand their findings and frame their recommendations in the most appropriate way for different countries.

16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 Figure 1 – The indicator structure

17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0

18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0  

19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 The indicators which are proposed within this framework provide a toolkit which can be used by diverse stakeholders, including governments, international organisations, civil society organisations and multistakeholder groups drawn from the various communities that are concerned with Internet development, access and rights. It can be used either holistically or through its component parts.

20 Leave a comment on paragraph 20 0 Categories. The framework as a whole is structured around five categories which focus on the four ROAM principles, together with a category of Cross-Cutting Indicators (X) (Figure 2).

21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 0 Themes. Each of the ROAMX indicators is divided into a number of themes. There are six themes in the R and A categories, five themes in the O and X categories, and three themes in the M category.

22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 Questions. A number of questions are set out within each theme. These address the specific points on which national performance is to be assessed and on which evidence is to be sought through specific quantitative, qualitative or institutional indicators.

23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 Indicators. One or more indicators is/are identified which will provide the evidence base for assessment of each question. These include quantitative, qualitative and institutional indicators. The range and quality of information available on these will vary between countries.

24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 Sources. The final report, in April 2018, will include a substantive note on means of verification for each indicator or group of indicators. This will offer guidance to those making use of the indicators, recognising that available data and information sources vary significantly between countries.

25 Leave a comment on paragraph 25 0 Figure 2 – The indicator structure

26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 0

27 Leave a comment on paragraph 27 0 Six criteria have been used for the selection of the questions and indicators that are proposed in this report. These are consistent with those adopted in the MDIs. They are:

  • 28 Leave a comment on paragraph 28 0
  • that each question/indicator should address a single issue;
  • that indicators should be chosen where measurement data are sufficiently reliable in quality to permit confident decision-making;
  • that the selected indicators should be quantitative where possible and qualitative where appropriate;
  • that they should be independently verifiable where possible;
  • that they should, where possible and relevant, permit disaggregation by gender, age group and other population characteristics;
  • and that it should be possible for the necessary data or information to be gathered, at reasonable cost in time and money, in the majority of countries.

29 Leave a comment on paragraph 29 0 The indicators which are proposed below are wide-ranging. Data availability will vary between countries and available resources will vary between assessments. The number of questions/indicators included in the final framework, which will be prepared following the second consultation, may be more or less than that included in this document. It is hoped that users of the framework will draw on those indicators to make as thorough an assessment as available data and resources allow.

30 Leave a comment on paragraph 30 0 THE INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS – CONTEXTUAL INDICATORS

  1. 31 Leave a comment on paragraph 31 0
  2. Economic indicators
  3. Gross National Income (GNI) (purchasing power parity) per capita

32 Leave a comment on paragraph 32 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set on GNI p.c. maintained by the World Bank.[4]

  1. 33 Leave a comment on paragraph 33 0
  2. GNI growth rate over the past ten years

34 Leave a comment on paragraph 34 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set on GNI p.c. maintained by the World Bank.

  1. 35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0
  2. Proportion of GDP attributable to services

36 Leave a comment on paragraph 36 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set on sectoral distribution of GDP which is maintained by the World Bank.[5]

  1. 37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 0
  2. Demographic indicators
  3. Overall population size and growth trend

38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set on population size maintained by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.[6]

  1. 39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0
  2. Average life expectancy, disaggregated by gender

40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set concerning life expectancy maintained by the World Health Organisation (WHO).[7]

  1. 41 Leave a comment on paragraph 41 0
  2. Proportions of young people, people of working age and elderly people

42 Leave a comment on paragraph 42 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set on population by age group maintained by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.[8]

  1. 43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0
  2. Linguistic diversity

44 Leave a comment on paragraph 44 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the index of linguistic diversity (with country summaries) maintained by Ethnologue.[9]

  1. 45 Leave a comment on paragraph 45 0
  2. Degree of urbanisation

46 Leave a comment on paragraph 46 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set on urban and rural population size maintained by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.[10]

  1. 47 Leave a comment on paragraph 47 0
  2. Development indicators
  3. UNDP Human Development Index (HDI)

48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the HDI prepared by UNDP and reported in its annual Human Development Report.[11]

  1. 49 Leave a comment on paragraph 49 0
  2. Mean years of schooling and proportions of appropriate age groups in primary, secondary and tertiary education, disaggregated by gender

50 Leave a comment on paragraph 50 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator consists of data sets which are gathered by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.[12]

  1. 51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0
  2. Adult literacy rate, disaggregated by gender (and language where appropriate)

52 Leave a comment on paragraph 52 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator consists of data gathered by the World Bank.[13]

  1. 53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0
  2. Proportion of population covered by electricity supply

54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 The principal sources proposed for this indicator is the World Bank’s Sustainable Energy for All database.[14]

  1. 55 Leave a comment on paragraph 55 0
  2. Equality indicators
  3. GINI coefficient

56 Leave a comment on paragraph 56 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the GINI index produced by the World Bank.[15]

  1. 57 Leave a comment on paragraph 57 0
  2. Gender Inequality Index

58 Leave a comment on paragraph 58 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the Gender Inequality Index generated by the UN Development Programme.[16]

  1. 59 Leave a comment on paragraph 59 0
  2. Governance indicators
  3. World Governance Indicators

60 Leave a comment on paragraph 60 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator are the six aggregate World Governance Indicators developed by the World Bank.[17]

  1. 61 Leave a comment on paragraph 61 0
  2. Doing Business Index

62 Leave a comment on paragraph 62 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the Doing Business Index prepared by the World Bank.[18]

  1. 63 Leave a comment on paragraph 63 0
  2. ICT development indicators
  3. ICT Development Index

64 Leave a comment on paragraph 64 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the ICT Development Index prepared by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).[19]

  1. 65 Leave a comment on paragraph 65 0
  2. World Economic Forum Networked Readiness Index

66 Leave a comment on paragraph 66 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the Networked Readiness Index prepared by the World Economic Forum.[20]

67 Leave a comment on paragraph 67 0 THE INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS – CATEGORY R – RIGHTS

68 Leave a comment on paragraph 68 0 The United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development envisages ‘a world of universal respect for human rights and human dignity, the rule of law, justice, equality and non-discrimination; of respect for race, ethnicity and cultural diversity; and of equal opportunity permitting the full realization of human potential and contributing to shared prosperity.’[21] An Internet that failed to uphold this principle would be incompatible with the Agenda.

69 Leave a comment on paragraph 69 0 This category of the indicator framework is divided into six themes:

  • 70 Leave a comment on paragraph 70 0
  • Theme A is concerned with the overall policy, legal and regulatory framework for human rights and their relation to the Internet.
  • Theme B is concerned with freedom of expression.
  • Theme C is concerned with the right to access information.
  • Theme D is concerned with freedom of association and with rights to participate in public life.
  • Theme E is concerned with issues relating to privacy.
  • Theme F is concerned with economic, social and cultural rights.

71 Leave a comment on paragraph 71 0 THEME A – POLICY, LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

72 Leave a comment on paragraph 72 0 The fundamental principles of human rights have been agreed by the international community in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)[22] and international rights agreements including the International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)[23] and on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR),[24] the Conventions on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)[25] and of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW),[26] and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).[27] A number of regional rights agreements have also been agreed.

73 Leave a comment on paragraph 73 0 The UN Human Rights Committee[28] and the General Assembly[29] have affirmed that ‘the same rights that people have offline must also be protected online.’ The UN Human Rights Council has adopted several resolutions on ‘the promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet,’ which address aspects of these and subsequent questions and indicators, most recently in 2016.[30]

74 Leave a comment on paragraph 74 0 A.1 Is there a legal framework for the enjoyment and enforcement of human rights which is consistent with international rights agreements and with the rule of law?

75 Leave a comment on paragraph 75 0 Indicator:

  • 76 Leave a comment on paragraph 76 0
  • Existence of an established legal framework which is consistent with international (including regional) rights agreements, and evidence that it is respected and enforced by government

77 Leave a comment on paragraph 77 0 A.2 Does the law recognise that rights and laws apply equally online and offline?

78 Leave a comment on paragraph 78 0 Indicator:

80 Leave a comment on paragraph 80 0 A.3 Do citizens have access to due process to address violations of rights, online and offline, by state or non-state actors?

81 Leave a comment on paragraph 81 0 Indicator:

83 Leave a comment on paragraph 83 0 A.4 Are law officers, judges and legal professionals trained in issues relating to the Internet and human rights?

84 Leave a comment on paragraph 84 0 Indicator:

86 Leave a comment on paragraph 86 0 THEME B – FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION

87 Leave a comment on paragraph 87 0 Article 19 of the UDHR and Article 19 of the ICCPR both deal with freedom of expression. This is defined in article 19(2) of the ICCPR as including an individual’s ‘freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.’[31] Article 19(3) of the ICCPR states that the exercise of these rights ‘may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary … for respect of the rights or reputations of others; [or] … for the protection of national security or of public order …, or of public health or morals.’[32] Regional rights agreements also include relevant provisions. The UN Human Rights Committee emphasised in its General Comment No. 34 (2011) that any such restrictions must be provided by law, necessary for the explicit purposes set out in the Article, and proportionate.[33]

88 Leave a comment on paragraph 88 0 B.1 Is freedom of expression guaranteed in law, respected in practice, and widely exercised?

89 Leave a comment on paragraph 89 0 Indicators:

  • 90 Leave a comment on paragraph 90 0
  • Constitutional or legal guarantee of freedom of expression consistent with ICCPR Article 19, and evidence that it is respected and enforced by government[34]
  • Constitutional or legal guarantee of press/media freedom
  • Assessment by credible agencies of extent and diversity of expression online and offline

91 Leave a comment on paragraph 91 0 B.2 Are any restrictions on freedom of expression in policy and practice narrowly defined, transparent and implemented in accordance with international rights agreements and HRC resolutions?

92 Leave a comment on paragraph 92 0 Indicator:

  • 93 Leave a comment on paragraph 93 0
  • Legal restrictions on freedom of expression are consistent with international rights agreements (including regional agreements) and respected by government

94 Leave a comment on paragraph 94 0 B.3 Is there significant ex ante or ex post censorship of specific content posted on online services, applications or websites, and on what grounds is this exercised?

95 Leave a comment on paragraph 95 0 Indicator:

97 Leave a comment on paragraph 97 0 B.4 Under what conditions does the law hold platforms and other online service providers liable for content published by them?

98 Leave a comment on paragraph 98 0 Indicator:

  • 99 Leave a comment on paragraph 99 0
  • Legal framework for intermediary liability and content regulation is consistent with international rights agreements (including regional agreements) and proportionally implemented

100 Leave a comment on paragraph 100 0 B.5 What proportion of the population generates online content, including social media?

101 Leave a comment on paragraph 101 0 Indicator:

103 Leave a comment on paragraph 103 0 B.6 Are low-cost online services available which enable citizens and civil society organisations to make use of the Internet to express their views?

104 Leave a comment on paragraph 104 0 Indicators:

  • 105 Leave a comment on paragraph 105 0
  • Availability of low-cost blogging and webhosting services
  • Legal restrictions, if any, on access to such services
  • Incidence of use of social media and blogging services

106 Leave a comment on paragraph 106 0 B.7 Are citizens, journalists or bloggers subject to arbitrary detention, prosecution or intimidation for disseminating information online on political and social issues?

107 Leave a comment on paragraph 107 0 Indicators:

109 Leave a comment on paragraph 109 0 B.8 Do journalists or citizens practice self-censorship in order to avoid harassment by government or online abuse?

110 Leave a comment on paragraph 110 0 Indicators:

  • 111 Leave a comment on paragraph 111 0
  • Evidence of self-censorship by journalists/bloggers
  • Evidence of self-censorship as a result of online abuse, particularly by women and children/young people

112 Leave a comment on paragraph 112 0 THEME C – RIGHT TO INFORMATION

113 Leave a comment on paragraph 113 0 Article 19(2) of the ICCPR asserts the freedom ‘to seek … information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, … through any … media of … choice.’[35] Article 19(3) of the ICCPR (see Theme B above) and related provisions in other international and regional rights agreements also address access to information. As with freedom of expression, the Human Rights Committee has asserted the importance of legal frameworks, requirement for necessity and proportionality in any restrictions permitted to these rights.[36]

114 Leave a comment on paragraph 114 0 C.1 Is the right to information guaranteed in law and respected in practice?

115 Leave a comment on paragraph 115 0 Indicators:

  • 116 Leave a comment on paragraph 116 0
  • Constitutional or legal guarantee of access to information consistent with international rights agreements (including regional agreements) and evidence that it is respected and enforced by government

117 Leave a comment on paragraph 117 0 C.2 Does the government block or filter access to the Internet or to specific online services, applications or websites, and on what grounds is this exercised?

118 Leave a comment on paragraph 118 0 Indicators:

  • 119 Leave a comment on paragraph 119 0
  • Evidence concerning formal and informal restrictions on Internet access and use
  • Numbers and trend of content access restrictions, takedowns of domain names and other interventions during the past twelve months

120 Leave a comment on paragraph 120 0 C.3 Are citizens, journalists or bloggers subject to detention, prosecution or intimidation for accessing information online, particularly on political and social issues?

121 Leave a comment on paragraph 121 0 Indicators:

  • 122 Leave a comment on paragraph 122 0
  • Nature of legal provisions and practice
  • Numbers of detentions and prosecutions for access to content which is not prohibited by international agreement

123 Leave a comment on paragraph 123 0 C.4 Is a wide variety of news sources and viewpoints on issues of national importance available online, without discrimination?

124 Leave a comment on paragraph 124 0 Indicator:

  • 125 Leave a comment on paragraph 125 0
  • Evidence concerning diversity and plurality of local content, including disaggregation by gender and socio-economic factors
  • Diversity of newspapers and news operations concerned with local news, online and offline
  • Consideration should be given and cross-reference made to data/evidence for Category X Question D.7 which is concerned with the manipulation of information.

126 Leave a comment on paragraph 126 0 THEME D – FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION AND THE RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN PUBLIC LIFE

127 Leave a comment on paragraph 127 0 Article 21 of the ICCPR establishes the right of peaceful assembly, and Article 22 the right to freedom of association with others. Both state that no restrictions may be placed on these other than ‘those which are prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public order …, the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.’

128 Leave a comment on paragraph 128 0 Article 25 of the ICCPR states that ‘Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity … to take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely chosen representatives,’ and ‘to have access, on general terms of equality, to public service in his country.’

129 Leave a comment on paragraph 129 0 D.1 Is freedom of association guaranteed in law and respected in practice?

130 Leave a comment on paragraph 130 0 Indicator:

  • 131 Leave a comment on paragraph 131 0
  • Existence of an established legal framework that is consistent with international rights agreements, and evidence that it is respected and enforced by government

132 Leave a comment on paragraph 132 0 D.2 Can civil society organisations organise effectively online?

133 Leave a comment on paragraph 133 0 Indicator:

135 Leave a comment on paragraph 135 0 D.3 Is there a government policy for e-government and e-participation which encourages citizen participation in government?

136 Leave a comment on paragraph 136 0 Indicators:

  • 137 Leave a comment on paragraph 137 0
  • Existence of government policies for e-government and e-participation, including use of the Internet for public consultation
  • Values/rankings in UNDESA’s e-government and e-participation indices

138 Leave a comment on paragraph 138 0 D.4 Are government websites available which enable citizens to undertake a wide range of e-government activities securely online as well as offline?

139 Leave a comment on paragraph 139 0 Indicators:

  • 140 Leave a comment on paragraph 140 0
  • Number of e-government services and users (disaggregated by gender)
  • Extent to which data on e-government sites are protected by encryption and cybersecurity
  • Credible reports concerning cybersecurity of government websites and services (e.g. use of https)

141 Leave a comment on paragraph 141 0 THEME E – PRIVACY

142 Leave a comment on paragraph 142 0 Article 12 of the UDHR and Article 17 of the ICCPR are concerned with privacy. Article 17 of the ICCPR provides that ‘No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence.’ Regional rights agreements also address issues of privacy in their regions. The UN General Assembly has adopted a number of resolutions concerning ‘the right to privacy in the digital age,’ which, in addition to general principles, have addressed issues including surveillance, encryption and anonymity.[37]

143 Leave a comment on paragraph 143 0 E.1 Is the right to privacy guaranteed in law and respected in practice?

144 Leave a comment on paragraph 144 0 Indicator:

146 Leave a comment on paragraph 146 0 E.2 Is the protection of personal data guaranteed in law and enforced in practice, with respect to governments, businesses and other organisations, including rights of access to information held and to redress?

147 Leave a comment on paragraph 147 0 Indicator:

  • 148 Leave a comment on paragraph 148 0
  • Existence of a legal framework for data protection, including monitoring mechanisms and means of recourse and redress, and evidence that it is respected and enforced by government
  • Existence of legal framework governing commercial use of personal data and international data transfer, including monitoring mechanisms and means of recourse and redress
  • Existence of an independent data protection authority

149 Leave a comment on paragraph 149 0 E.3 Are the powers of law enforcement and other agencies for the surveillance of Internet users necessary, proportionate and limited to circumstances which are consistent with international rights agreements? [38]

150 Leave a comment on paragraph 150 0 Indicator:

151 Leave a comment on paragraph 151 0 Legal framework for surveillance, and evidence concerning implementation

152 Leave a comment on paragraph 152 0 E.4 Are any requirements for identification and registration, including communications registration, necessary, proportionate and consistent with international rights agreements?

153 Leave a comment on paragraph 153 0 Indicator:

155 Leave a comment on paragraph 155 0 E.5 Are data encryption and online anonymity protected in law and practice in a way that is consistent with international rights agreements?[39]

156 Leave a comment on paragraph 156 0 Indicator:

158 Leave a comment on paragraph 158 0 E.6 Do citizens have legal rights to protect their online identity and to manage or correct information concerning them online, in ways that protect both privacy and freedom of expression?

159 Leave a comment on paragraph 159 0 Indicator:

161 Leave a comment on paragraph 161 0 E.7 Are government requirements for Internet businesses to provide information to government agencies concerning Internet users necessary, proportionate, transparent and consistent with international rights agreements?

162 Leave a comment on paragraph 162 0 Indicator:

164 Leave a comment on paragraph 164 0 THEME F – SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL RIGHTS

165 Leave a comment on paragraph 165 0 Economic, social and cultural rights are identified and elaborated in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).[40] Articles 3 to 14 are concerned with the progressive realisation of rights concerned with employment, social security, family life, freedom from hunger, health and education. Article 15 recognises the right of everyone to take part in cultural life. This theme should be considered in conjunction with Category X Theme C, which is concerned with sustainable development.

166 Leave a comment on paragraph 166 0 F.1 Do government policies incorporate the Internet in strategies concerned with employment, health and education, with particular reference to ICESCR rights?

167 Leave a comment on paragraph 167 0 Indicator:

  • 168 Leave a comment on paragraph 168 0
  • Evidence of inclusion of the Internet, and of IECESCR rights, in sector strategies for employment, health and education
  • Evidence of analysis by government of the impact of Internet on employment, health and education

169 Leave a comment on paragraph 169 0 F.2 Are all citizens equally able to take advantage of the Internet to participate in cultural activity?

170 Leave a comment on paragraph 170 0 Indicator:

  • 171 Leave a comment on paragraph 171 0
  • Extent and nature of differences in Internet access and use between different communities/ethnicities
  • Existence or otherwise of government policy concerning cultural heritage online
  • Constitutional or legal guarantee of freedom of artistic expression

172 Leave a comment on paragraph 172 0 THE INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS – CATEGORY O – OPENNESS

173 Leave a comment on paragraph 173 0 Internet Universality’s second principle is that the Internet should be open for all to develop or take advantage of its resources and opportunities in whatever ways seem most appropriate or valuable to them. The category of openness is concerned alike, therefore, with technical issues, markets, content and trust in the Internet and Internet-enabled services, including issues such as open source software and development, open government, open data and open educational resources. Through openness, Internet Universality acknowledges the integrity of the Internet as enabling a common global exchange, rather than being confined to ‘walled gardens’ based on incompatible technologies.

174 Leave a comment on paragraph 174 0 This category is divided into five themes:

  • 175 Leave a comment on paragraph 175 0
  • Theme A is concerned with the overall policy, legal and regulatory framework.
  • Theme B is concerned with open standards.
  • Theme C is concerned with open markets.
  • Theme D is concerned with open content.
  • Theme E is concerned with open data.

176 Leave a comment on paragraph 176 0 THEME A – POLICY, LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

177 Leave a comment on paragraph 177 0 An appropriate policy, legal and regulatory framework – including research support, standardisation and multistakeholder governance structures – is necessary to support an evidence-based, transparent and forward-looking policymaking process that will preserve the Internet as an open and universal resource.

178 Leave a comment on paragraph 178 0 A.1 Is there an overall policy, legal and regulatory framework for Internet development and policymaking which is consistent with international norms concerning openness and transparency?

179 Leave a comment on paragraph 179 0 Indicators:

  • 180 Leave a comment on paragraph 180 0
  • Existence of an overall framework consistent with relevant international norms[41]
  • Existence of legal and regulatory frameworks to enable e-commerce, digital signatures, cybersecurity, data protection and consumer protection

181 Leave a comment on paragraph 181 0 A.2 Does the legal and regulatory framework for business, academia and civil society facilitate innovation on the Internet?

182 Leave a comment on paragraph 182 0 Indicators:

  • 183 Leave a comment on paragraph 183 0
  • Conduciveness of the legal and regulatory framework towards the establishment of new business ventures and innovation by academia and civil society
  • Perceptions of experience of business and ICT regulatory environment by businesses, including Internet-enabled business

184 Leave a comment on paragraph 184 0 A.3 Are there restrictions on which organisations or individuals can establish Internet, or Internet-enabled, services?

185 Leave a comment on paragraph 185 0 Indicator:

187 Leave a comment on paragraph 187 0 THEME B – OPEN STANDARDS

188 Leave a comment on paragraph 188 0 Open standards play a crucial role in promoting interoperability, and thereby innovation and the diversity of service provision on the Internet.

189 Leave a comment on paragraph 189 0 B.1 Does the legal and regulatory framework encourage or constrain investment and innovation using all available technologies?

190 Leave a comment on paragraph 190 0 Indicators:

  • 191 Leave a comment on paragraph 191 0
  • Evidence concerning government policy and practice towards online innovation, including procurement
  • Number and survival rate of Internet-related start-ups

192 Leave a comment on paragraph 192 0 B.2 Do national standards setting processes conform to international standards including due process, transparency, balance and openness to participation by all interested parties?

193 Leave a comment on paragraph 193 0 Indicator:

195 Leave a comment on paragraph 195 0 B.3 Does the government facilitate free and open-source software (FOSS)?

196 Leave a comment on paragraph 196 0 Indicator:

198 Leave a comment on paragraph 198 0 B.4 How extensively are developments in Internet protocols and standards implemented within the country?

199 Leave a comment on paragraph 199 0 Indicator:

201 Leave a comment on paragraph 201 0 THEME C – OPEN MARKETS

202 Leave a comment on paragraph 202 0 Open markets for networks and communications services facilitate consumer choice, stimulate innovation and generally lead to lower prices and improve quality of service for end-users.

203 Leave a comment on paragraph 203 0 C.1 Is there independent regulation of communications markets, undertaken in accordance with international norms and standards?

204 Leave a comment on paragraph 204 0 Indicator:

206 Leave a comment on paragraph 206 0 C.2 Are licensing and allocation of critical resources (including spectrum, domain names and IP addresses) flexible, technology- and service-neutral, non-restrictive and non-discriminatory?

207 Leave a comment on paragraph 207 0 Indicator:

209 Leave a comment on paragraph 209 0 C.3 Is there independent management of the domain name system?

210 Leave a comment on paragraph 210 0 Indicators:

212 Leave a comment on paragraph 212 0 C.4 Is there sufficiently effective competition in access networks to protect consumer interests?

213 Leave a comment on paragraph 213 0 Indicators:

215 Leave a comment on paragraph 215 0 C.5 Can Internet users choose between diverse Internet service providers, including domain name registrars, ISPs and online services?

216 Leave a comment on paragraph 216 0 Indicators:

  • 217 Leave a comment on paragraph 217 0
  • Number of and distribution of market shares between domain name registrars
  • Number of and distribution of market shares between ISPs
  • Presence or absence of restrictions on access to international online service providers (including, for example, search, social media, microblogging, news access and e-commerce platforms)
  • Extent and diversity of use of national and international online service providers in core areas of Internet use (including, for example, search, social media, microblogging, news access and e-commerce platforms)

218 Leave a comment on paragraph 218 0 C.6 Are there Internet Exchange Points and effective peering arrangements for exchange of Internet traffic?

219 Leave a comment on paragraph 219 0 Indicator:

  • 220 Leave a comment on paragraph 220 0
  • Existence and effective management of IXP(s)
  • Proportion of national traffic using IXPs, including trend
  • Latency levels to access national, regional and international servers

221 Leave a comment on paragraph 221 0 THEME D – OPEN CONTENT

222 Leave a comment on paragraph 222 0 The theme of open content is concerned with providing for the availability of content of all kinds, including public information and information from other sources within and beyond the country, which can be made available online. Open content approaches seek to maximise the availability of content to end-users, through open licensing arrangements, without infringing international intellectual property agreements.

223 Leave a comment on paragraph 223 0 D.1 Does the government actively promote access to knowledge through its policies for education, culture and science?

224 Leave a comment on paragraph 224 0 Indicator:

226 Leave a comment on paragraph 226 0 D.2 Do arrangements for intellectual property protection balance the interests of copyright holders and information users in ways that promote innovation and creativity?

227 Leave a comment on paragraph 227 0 Indicator:

  • 228 Leave a comment on paragraph 228 0
  • Nature of the legal arrangements for copyright enforcement
  • Government adoption of creative commons and other open access forms of intellectual property

229 Leave a comment on paragraph 229 0 D.3 Does the government provide or encourage access to and facilitate sharing of public information?

230 Leave a comment on paragraph 230 0 Indicators:

  • 231 Leave a comment on paragraph 231 0
  • Existence and nature of government policies on access to and sharing of public information, including availability of creative commons or comparable licences
  • Consideration should be given and cross-reference made to data/evidence for indicators concerning government policies on e-government and e-participation (Category R: Questions D.3, D.4) and public access facilities which can be used to access public information (Category A: Question A.5)

232 Leave a comment on paragraph 232 0 D.4 Does the government encourage the use of open educational resources (OER) and facilitate open access to academic resources?

233 Leave a comment on paragraph 233 0 Indicator:

  • 234 Leave a comment on paragraph 234 0
  • Educational policy framework concerning OER
  • Arrangements for access to academic and scientific resources by higher education institutions and students

235 Leave a comment on paragraph 235 0 D.5 Does the government require ISPs to manage network traffic in a way that is transparent, evenly applied and does not discriminate against particular types of content or content from particular sources?

236 Leave a comment on paragraph 236 0 Indicator:

238 Leave a comment on paragraph 238 0 D.6 Does the government allow citizens to publish and access content through protocols and tools of their own choice, including virtual private networks (VPNs)?

239 Leave a comment on paragraph 239 0 Indicator:

241 Leave a comment on paragraph 241 0 THEME E – OPEN DATA

242 Leave a comment on paragraph 242 0 Open data policies are concerned with making publicly available data that are gathered by governments (and, sometimes, other stakeholders) so that they can be used by any stakeholder. Data protection arrangements are important in ensuring that open data sets do not undermine individual privacy rights.

243 Leave a comment on paragraph 243 0 E.1 Has legislation been enacted which requires open access to public data, and is that legislation implemented?

244 Leave a comment on paragraph 244 0 Indicator:

  • 245 Leave a comment on paragraph 245 0
  • Existence of a legal framework for access to open data which is consistent with international norms[42] and privacy requirements
  • Evidence concerning the extent to which open data resources are available and used online[43]

246 Leave a comment on paragraph 246 0 E.2 Do government departments and local government agencies have websites which are available in all official languages?

247 Leave a comment on paragraph 247 0 Indicators:

  • 248 Leave a comment on paragraph 248 0
  • Government policy to ensure provision of websites with appropriate language access
  • Proportion of government departments with websites (value/ranking in UNDESA online services index)
  • Quality of government websites (extent of language availability, quantity of content, availability of mobile version)
  • Proportion of adult citizens who have used e-government services within twelve months

249 Leave a comment on paragraph 249 0 E.3 Do government and other public stakeholders provide easy online access to publicly-held data sets, including machine-readable access to original data?

250 Leave a comment on paragraph 250 0 Indicator:

  • 251 Leave a comment on paragraph 251 0
  • Legal framework concerning freedom of information
  • Number and quantity of open data sets made available by government and available through public access facilities
  • Availability of public access facilities that can be used for open data access in e.g. educational institutions and libraries
  • Data on the extent of use of open data, in total and within country

252 Leave a comment on paragraph 252 0 E.4 Are provisions concerning the location and duration of data retention consistent with international standards of data protection and supportive of effective access?

253 Leave a comment on paragraph 253 0 Indicator:

255 Leave a comment on paragraph 255 0 E.5 Can individuals and organisations use and share public data without restriction?

256 Leave a comment on paragraph 256 0 Indicator:

  • 257 Leave a comment on paragraph 257 0
  • Legal framework concerning freedom of information
  • Presence or absence of restrictions in government policy and practice on the use and sharing of public data

258 Leave a comment on paragraph 258 0 E.6 Are open data used by stakeholders in ways which have a positive impact on sustainable development?

259 Leave a comment on paragraph 259 0 Indicator:

  • 260 Leave a comment on paragraph 260 0
  • Number of access requests for open data from government
  • Evidence of developmental use of open data in selected sectors (e.g. environment, health, agriculture, enterprise)

261 Leave a comment on paragraph 261 0 THE INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS – ACCESSIBILITY TO ALL

262 Leave a comment on paragraph 262 0 The ability of all to access the Internet lies at the heart of Internet Universality. The reach of the Internet and Internet-enabled services has grown rapidly, but access to the Internet remains highly unequal.

263 Leave a comment on paragraph 263 0 The principle of accessibility to all reaches far beyond mere connectivity, for example, to include issues of affordability, content and capability. This category is divided into six themes:

  • 264 Leave a comment on paragraph 264 0
  • Theme A is concerned with the legal and regulatory framework for universal access and related issues.
  • Theme B is concerned with technical and geographic connectivity.
  • Theme C is concerned with the affordability of networks and services.
  • Theme D addresses issues of equitable access.
  • Theme E is concerned with content and language.
  • Theme F is concerned with capabilities and competencies.

265 Leave a comment on paragraph 265 0 Data concerning access need to be disaggregated if they are to be fully understood and addressed in policy and practice. Assessments should pay particular attention to the accessibility of the Internet for women, children and young people, relating findings concerning these to Themes A and B in Category X.

266 Leave a comment on paragraph 266 0 THEME A – POLICY, LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

267 Leave a comment on paragraph 267 0 The first theme within this category is concerned with the evidence base and the legal, regulatory and infrastructural framework for communications access.

268 Leave a comment on paragraph 268 0 A.1 Are effective arrangements in place to monitor access and use of Internet?

269 Leave a comment on paragraph 269 0 Indicator:

271 Leave a comment on paragraph 271 0 A.2 Is there a legal right to access the Internet and online services?

272 Leave a comment on paragraph 272 0 Indicator:

274 Leave a comment on paragraph 274 0 A.3 Is there an independent legal or regulatory authority which seeks to implement universal access to communications and the Internet?

275 Leave a comment on paragraph 275 0 Indicator:

277 Leave a comment on paragraph 277 0 A.4 Does the government have a policy and programme to implement universal access to reliable, affordable broadband, and is this effectively implemented?

278 Leave a comment on paragraph 278 0 Indicator:

  • 279 Leave a comment on paragraph 279 0
  • Adoption of a universal access strategy and evidence of effective deployment of UA resources
  • Statistical evidence of progress towards universal access, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Consideration should be given and cross-reference made to data/evidence for contextual indicator 3.D, which is concerned with the availability of electricity.

280 Leave a comment on paragraph 280 0 A.5 Are public access facilities available that provide access to the Internet for those who cannot afford or obtain personal access to the Internet?

281 Leave a comment on paragraph 281 0 Indicator:

  • 282 Leave a comment on paragraph 282 0
  • Inclusion of public access in universal access strategy
  • Numbers of telecentres, libraries and other public facilities offering Internet access, compared with proportion of the population without personal access

283 Leave a comment on paragraph 283 0 THEME B – CONNECTIVITY AND USAGE

284 Leave a comment on paragraph 284 0 The availability of networks of sufficient capacity and reliability to enable people to access and use the Internet is fundamental to Accessibility for All.

285 Leave a comment on paragraph 285 0 B.1 Are broadband networks geographically available throughout the country?

286 Leave a comment on paragraph 286 0 Indicators:

  • 287 Leave a comment on paragraph 287 0
  • Percentage of population covered by fixed broadband networks, including bandwidth tiers
  • Percentage of population covered by mobile broadband signal, bandwidth tiers (and compared with proportion covered by mobile cellular signal)
  • International Internet bandwidth per Internet user

288 Leave a comment on paragraph 288 0 B.2 What proportion of the population subscribes to communications/broadband services, and is this growing?

289 Leave a comment on paragraph 289 0 Indicators:

  • 290 Leave a comment on paragraph 290 0
  • Number of fixed broadband subscriptions per hundred population, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Number of unique active mobile broadband subscribers per hundred population, by bandwidth, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Number of IP addresses within the country, per hundred population

291 Leave a comment on paragraph 291 0 B.3 What proportion of the population uses the Internet, with what frequency, and is this proportion growing?

292 Leave a comment on paragraph 292 0 Indicators:

  • 293 Leave a comment on paragraph 293 0
  • Proportion of individuals who have ever accessed the Internet, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Proportion of households with Internet access at home, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Number of Internet users per hundred population, aggregate and disaggregated, by frequency of use
  • Number of social media (social networks, microblogs, user-generated video streaming) users per hundred population, aggregate and disaggregated, and by frequency of use
  • Number of visits to social media websites (defined as above) per hundred population

294 Leave a comment on paragraph 294 0 B.4 What barriers to access are identified by users and non-users of the Internet?

295 Leave a comment on paragraph 295 0 Indicator:

297 Leave a comment on paragraph 297 0 B.5 Is the volume of Internet traffic within the country growing significantly compared with other countries?

298 Leave a comment on paragraph 298 0 Indicator:

300 Leave a comment on paragraph 300 0 THEME C – AFFORDABILITY

301 Leave a comment on paragraph 301 0 Connectivity is insufficient to enable people to access and use the Internet. The extent to which they can do so also depends on its affordability. Targets for affordability have been adopted by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU),[44] the Broadband Commission for Digital Development[45] and the Alliance for Affordable Internet.[46]

302 Leave a comment on paragraph 302 0 C.1 Are mobile handsets capable of Internet connectivity affordable to all sections of the population?

303 Leave a comment on paragraph 303 0 Indicator:

305 Leave a comment on paragraph 305 0 C.2 Is the cost of broadband access and use affordable to all sections of the population?

306 Leave a comment on paragraph 306 0 Indicators:

  • 307 Leave a comment on paragraph 307 0
  • Cost of basic fixed broadband connection and use as a percentage of monthly GNI p.c.
  • Cost of basic mobile broadband connection and use as a percentage of monthly GNI p.c.

308 Leave a comment on paragraph 308 0 C.3 Are universal access/service arrangements in place which seek to reduce the cost of access for poor and marginalised groups within the population?

309 Leave a comment on paragraph 309 0 Indicators:

311 Leave a comment on paragraph 311 0 THEME D – EQUITABLE ACCESS

312 Leave a comment on paragraph 312 0 There are significant digital divides within many national populations, associated with factors such as geography, gender, age, ethnicity and disability.

313 Leave a comment on paragraph 313 0 The questions and indicators in this category should be assessed alongside those concerned with overall connectivity and usage in Theme B, and alongside those concerned with Gender and with Children and Young People in Category X.

314 Leave a comment on paragraph 314 0 D.1 Are there significant differences in broadband access between urban and rural areas?

315 Leave a comment on paragraph 315 0 Indicators:

  • 316 Leave a comment on paragraph 316 0
  • Geographical coverage in urban and rural areas, by level of bandwidth
  • Numbers of mobile broadband subscribers and of Internet users, in urban and rural areas, indicated in household surveys

317 Leave a comment on paragraph 317 0 D.2 Is there a gender digital divide in Internet access and use and, if so, is this gender divide growing, stable or diminishing? (This question and indicators are also included in Category X Theme A.)

318 Leave a comment on paragraph 318 0 Indicators:

  • 319 Leave a comment on paragraph 319 0
  • Proportions of adult women and men using the Internet, compared with other countries and with gender differences in income and educational attainment
  • Proportions of adult women and men with mobile broadband subscriptions
  • Survey data on patterns of Internet use, disaggregated by gender
  • Perceptions of barriers to Internet access and use, and of stated values of Internet access and use, disaggregated by gender

320 Leave a comment on paragraph 320 0 D.3 Do people in all age groups make use of the Internet to the same extent?

321 Leave a comment on paragraph 321 0 Indicator:

323 Leave a comment on paragraph 323 0 D.4 Are people with disabilities able to make effective use of the Internet?

324 Leave a comment on paragraph 324 0 Indicators:

  • 325 Leave a comment on paragraph 325 0
  • Existence of legal and regulatory provisions to promote access and use of Internet by people with disabilities
  • Extent of accessibility facilitation on government websites and e-government services
  • Proportion of those with and without disabilities who are using the Internet, adjusted to compensate for age differences

326 Leave a comment on paragraph 326 0 THEME E – LOCAL CONTENT AND LANGUAGE

327 Leave a comment on paragraph 327 0 Relevant content, including content which is generated locally and concerned with local issues, is necessary if people are to use the Internet in order to improve their quality of life or livelihoods, and to contribute to national development. The availability of content in languages which are used by local populations is also critical to the value of Internet access, particularly for minority language speakers.

328 Leave a comment on paragraph 328 0 E.1 How many Internet domains are registered within the country and is this number growing?

329 Leave a comment on paragraph 329 0 Indicator:

331 Leave a comment on paragraph 331 0 E.2 Is a substantial and growing volume of content about the country available online, including locally-generated content?

332 Leave a comment on paragraph 332 0 Indicator:

334 Leave a comment on paragraph 334 0 E.3 Are services available which enable citizens to access and use local scripts and languages online?

335 Leave a comment on paragraph 335 0 Indicators:

337 Leave a comment on paragraph 337 0 E.4 Is there a substantial and growing volume of Internet content in diverse local languages, including locally-generated content?

338 Leave a comment on paragraph 338 0 Indicators:

  • 339 Leave a comment on paragraph 339 0
  • Proportion of population whose principal language and script are available on leading online services
  • Availability of content on government websites in all languages with significant user groups within the population
  • Proportion of content generated in and read by citizens/residents on leading online services, by language, compared with proportion of total population using each language as their principal language

340 Leave a comment on paragraph 340 0 THEME F – CAPABILITIES / COMPETENCIES

341 Leave a comment on paragraph 341 0 Effective use of the Internet and Internet-enabled services requires certain capabilities and competencies on the part of users. UNESCO has an established group of media and information literacy indicators,[48] which are partly incorporated in this theme and provide a valuable resource for in-depth investigation.

342 Leave a comment on paragraph 342 0 F.1 Do school and higher educational curricula include training in ICTs and Internet, focused on effective and safe use, and are these curricula implemented in practice?

343 Leave a comment on paragraph 343 0 Indicator:

  • 344 Leave a comment on paragraph 344 0
  • Policy concerning school curricula
  • Evidence of appropriate educational curricula at primary, secondary and tertiary levels
  • Proportion of teachers in primary and secondary schools with training in ICTs or ICT-facilitated education
  • Proportion of schools with computer-assisted instruction
  • Proportion of learners who have access to the Internet at school

345 Leave a comment on paragraph 345 0 F.2 Are media and information literacy programmes (including digital aspects) provided for adults by government or other stakeholders, and used by citizens?

346 Leave a comment on paragraph 346 0 Indicators:

  • 347 Leave a comment on paragraph 347 0
  • Existence of media and information literacy programmes, and usage statistics, disaggregated by gender
  • Perceptions of media and information literacy among users

348 Leave a comment on paragraph 348 0 F.3 What proportion of the population and the workforce is skilled in the use of ICTs?

349 Leave a comment on paragraph 349 0 Indicators:

  • 350 Leave a comment on paragraph 350 0
  • Proportion of Internet users with particular skills, by skill type, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Proportion of the workforce using ICTs in the workplace, by skill type, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Proportion of higher education students undertaking STEM and ICT courses, compared with global averages
  • Consideration should be given and cross-reference made to data/evidence for Category X Question C.7 which is concerned with the prevalence of the Internet in business.

351 Leave a comment on paragraph 351 0 UNESCO INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS – MULTISTAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION

352 Leave a comment on paragraph 352 0 The development of the Internet has been characterised by multistakeholder participation, which has drawn together governments, intergovernmental and international organisations, the private sector, civil society and the Internet technical and professional community and academia. The goal of multistakeholder participation is to improve the inclusiveness and quality of decision-making by including in discussion and policymaking processes all those who have an interest in the development of the Internet and its impact on wider social, economic and cultural development.

353 Leave a comment on paragraph 353 0 This category is divided into three themes:

  • 354 Leave a comment on paragraph 354 0
  • Theme A is concerned with the overall legal and regulatory framework for participation in governance.
  • Theme B is concerned with national Internet governance.
  • Theme C is concerned with international Internet governance.

355 Leave a comment on paragraph 355 0 THEME A – LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

356 Leave a comment on paragraph 356 0 The overall framework for governance within the country provides the overall context within which policies and decisions concerning the Internet are made.

357 Leave a comment on paragraph 357 0 A.1 Does the government encourage participation by other stakeholders in national governance through the Internet? (This concerns processes which are not themselves about the Internet.)

358 Leave a comment on paragraph 358 0 Indicators:

  • 359 Leave a comment on paragraph 359 0
  • Value and ranking in UN DESA E-Participation Index
  • Legal arrangements requiring public consultation and legal and practical arrangements for online consultation processes
  • Number and range of government consultation processes and opportunities available online
  • Evidence of participation by diverse stakeholder groups in online consultation processes

360 Leave a comment on paragraph 360 0 A.2 Is government accountable to citizens and stakeholder communities?

361 Leave a comment on paragraph 361 0 Indicator:

  • 362 Leave a comment on paragraph 362 0
  • Constitutional and institutional arrangements for government accountability, and evidence from credible sources that these are implemented in practice

363 Leave a comment on paragraph 363 0 THEME B – NATIONAL INTERNET GOVERNANCE

364 Leave a comment on paragraph 364 0 This theme is concerned with the extent to which diverse stakeholder groups are involved in national-level policymaking concerned with the Internet.

365 Leave a comment on paragraph 365 0 B.1 Are there active associations of Internet professionals, consumers and other stakeholder communities?

366 Leave a comment on paragraph 366 0 Indicator:

368 Leave a comment on paragraph 368 0 B.2 Does the government actively involve other stakeholder groups in developing national Internet policies and legislation?

369 Leave a comment on paragraph 369 0 Indicators:

  • 370 Leave a comment on paragraph 370 0
  • Existence of arrangements for multistakeholder consultation and involvement in national policymaking institutions and processes concerned with the evolution and use of the Internet
  • Numbers of non-governmental stakeholders actively participating, by stakeholder group, disaggregated by gender

371 Leave a comment on paragraph 371 0 B.3 Is there a national Internet Governance Forum which is open to all stakeholders, with active participation from diverse stakeholder groups?

372 Leave a comment on paragraph 372 0 Indicator:

  • 373 Leave a comment on paragraph 373 0
  • Existence of national IGF
  • Participation data, aggregate and disaggregated, with particular attention to participation by selected groups (e.g. education ministries, SMEs, NGOs concerned with children, trades unions); and including arrangements for remote participation
  • Assessment of national IGF reports filed with global IGF Secretariat

374 Leave a comment on paragraph 374 0 B.4 Does the national domain name registry involve all stakeholders in its decision-making processes?

375 Leave a comment on paragraph 375 0 Indicator:

377 Leave a comment on paragraph 377 0 THEME C – INTERNATIONAL INTERNET GOVERNANCE

378 Leave a comment on paragraph 378 0 This theme is concerned with the extent to which diverse stakeholder groups within the country participate in international fora concerned with Internet governance.

379 Leave a comment on paragraph 379 0 C.1 Does the government actively involve other stakeholder groups in developing policy towards international Internet governance?

380 Leave a comment on paragraph 380 0 Indicator:

382 Leave a comment on paragraph 382 0 C.2 Do government and other stakeholders from the country actively participate in major international fora concerned with ICTs and the Internet?

383 Leave a comment on paragraph 383 0 Indicators:

  • 384 Leave a comment on paragraph 384 0
  • Number of participants from different stakeholder groups participating in global and regional IGFs, per million population, aggregated and disaggregated by stakeholder group and gender
  • Participation or otherwise of non-government stakeholders in official delegations to ITU, aggregated and disaggregated by stakeholder group and gender

385 Leave a comment on paragraph 385 0 C.3 Does the government and do other stakeholders participate actively in ICANN?

386 Leave a comment on paragraph 386 0 Indicator:

  • 387 Leave a comment on paragraph 387 0
  • Membership of and active participation in ICANN’s Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC)
  • Membership of and active participation in ICANN constituencies, working groups and other fora.

388 Leave a comment on paragraph 388 0 UNESCO INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS – CROSS-CUTTING INDICATORS

389 Leave a comment on paragraph 389 0 The final category included in the Internet Universality framework draws together five groups of cross-cutting indicators:

  • 390 Leave a comment on paragraph 390 0
  • Group A is concerned with gender equality.
  • Group B is concerned with children and young people.
  • Group C is concerned with sustainable development.
  • Group D is concerned with trust and security.
  • Group E is concerned with legal and ethical aspects of the Internet.

391 Leave a comment on paragraph 391 0 GROUP A – GENDER

392 Leave a comment on paragraph 392 0 Women in many countries face a number of barriers in gaining access to or using the Internet. UNESCO believes that a distinct analysis on gender should form part of any assessment that is made using the indicators in this framework. Assessments concerned with gender and the Internet should draw fully on questions and indicators throughout the ROAM categories in addition to these questions/indicators. The Gender Inequality Index (contextual indicator 4.B) should also be considered.

393 Leave a comment on paragraph 393 0 A.1 Are the interests and needs of girls and women explicitly included in national strategies for Internet development, and effectively monitored?

394 Leave a comment on paragraph 394 0 Indicator:

  • 395 Leave a comment on paragraph 395 0
  • National strategies include explicit consideration of a) women’s needs relating to the Internet and b) the potential of the Internet to support women’s rights and equality
  • Numbers of women and men in senior policymaking positions in government concerned with ICTs/Internet
  • Extent of disaggregation of available data on ICT access and use by gender
  • Existence of national mechanisms to monitor women’s inclusion in strategies for Internet access and use

396 Leave a comment on paragraph 396 0 A.2 Is there a gender digital divide in Internet access and use and, if so, is this gender divide growing, stable or diminishing? (This question and some of its indicators are also included in Category X Theme A.)

397 Leave a comment on paragraph 397 0 Indicators:

  • 398 Leave a comment on paragraph 398 0
  • Proportions of adult women and men using the Internet, by frequency, compared with other countries and with gender differences in income and educational attainment
  • Proportions of adult women and men with mobile broadband subscriptions, compared as above
  • Survey data on patterns of Internet use, disaggregated by gender
  • Perceptions of barriers to Internet access and use, disaggregated by gender
  • Perceptions of value of Internet access and use, disaggregated by gender
  • Proportions of women and men involved in internet governance issues

399 Leave a comment on paragraph 399 0 A.3 Do women and men participate to the same degree in use of online services?

400 Leave a comment on paragraph 400 0 Indicators:

  • 401 Leave a comment on paragraph 401 0
  • Proportion of Internet users using social media networks, disaggregated by gender
  • Proportion of adult citizens using mobile financial services, disaggregated by gender

402 Leave a comment on paragraph 402 0 A.4 Do the law, law enforcement and judicial processes protect women against online gender-based a) harassment and b) violence, without unduly impacting other human rights?

403 Leave a comment on paragraph 403 0 Indicators:

  • 404 Leave a comment on paragraph 404 0
  • Incidence of gender-based a) harassment and b) violence experienced by women and girls
  • Evidence of government, law enforcement and judicial action to provide protection to women against online gender-based a) harassment and b) violence

405 Leave a comment on paragraph 405 0 A.5 Is the proportion of women in STEM training, employment and Internet leadership significant and growing?

406 Leave a comment on paragraph 406 0 Indicators:

  • 407 Leave a comment on paragraph 407 0
  • Proportion of women in STEM employment, by level of skill
  • Proportion of women in STEM courses in higher education
  • Proportion of women in senior management positions in national Internet-related government departments/roles and Internet/communications businesses

408 Leave a comment on paragraph 408 0 A.6 Is accurate information about reproductive and sexual health freely available online?

409 Leave a comment on paragraph 409 0 Indicator:

411 Leave a comment on paragraph 411 0 GROUP B – CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE

412 Leave a comment on paragraph 412 0 The Internet has great potential to enable children to access information that they need and cannot readily obtain by other means, to participate in social groups, and to express their wishes, hopes and needs. At the same time, there is widespread concern at threats to children’s wellbeing which may be facilitated by the Internet. Initiatives such as Global Kids Online and agencies including UNICEF are working to establish ways of promoting the opportunities which Internet access and use open up for children while protecting them from harm.

413 Leave a comment on paragraph 413 0 Young people, aged between 18 and 24, are among the most enthusiastic and intensive users of the Internet worldwide. The ITU estimates that 71% of those in this age group were online in 2017, compared with 48% of the global population.[49]

414 Leave a comment on paragraph 414 0 An additional question concerning differences in Internet access and use by age group is included in Theme D (Equitable Access) of Category A.

415 Leave a comment on paragraph 415 0 B.1 Does the government survey children and young people and/or consult them (and organisations concerned with children) about their use of the Internet?

416 Leave a comment on paragraph 416 0 Indicator:

418 Leave a comment on paragraph 418 0 B.2 What proportion of children (5-15 or 5-18) and young people (15-25 or 18-25) make use of the Internet?

419 Leave a comment on paragraph 419 0 Indicators:

  • 420 Leave a comment on paragraph 420 0
  • Proportions of children and young people making use of the Internet, compared with other countries and with other age groups, disaggregated by gender and other social groups, and by frequency of use

421 Leave a comment on paragraph 421 0 B.3 How do children and young people perceive and use the Internet?

422 Leave a comment on paragraph 422 0 Indicators:

  • 423 Leave a comment on paragraph 423 0
  • Perceptions of the Internet among children and young people, including barriers to use, value of use and fears concerning use
  • Data on use of the Internet by children and young people, compared with other age groups (e.g. data on location of use, main type of use, frequency of use)

424 Leave a comment on paragraph 424 0 B.4 Is there a legal and policy framework to promote and protect the interests of children online, and is this effectively implemented?

425 Leave a comment on paragraph 425 0 Indicator:

  • 426 Leave a comment on paragraph 426 0
  • Existence of a policy framework and legal protections consistent with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), and evidence of effective implementation

427 Leave a comment on paragraph 427 0 B.5 Do primary and secondary schools have Internet and broadband access?

428 Leave a comment on paragraph 428 0 Indicators:

  • 429 Leave a comment on paragraph 429 0
  • Proportions of schools with broadband and Internet access, disaggregated by tier (private/public; primary/secondary) and location (rural/urban)
  • Learner to computer ratio in schools, disaggregated as above

430 Leave a comment on paragraph 430 0 B.6 Do educational curricula and online services support children’s effective and safe use of the Internet?

431 Leave a comment on paragraph 431 0 Indicator:

  • 432 Leave a comment on paragraph 432 0
  • Evidence of educational curricula focused on effective and safe use of Internet
  • Availability of online services to support children’s use of the Internet, including child protection services accessible by children
  • Usage data of online services to support children’s use of the Internet, including child protection services accessible by children

433 Leave a comment on paragraph 433 0 GROUP C – SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

434 Leave a comment on paragraph 434 0 The United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development sets out the global framework for international action on development until 2030. It notes that ‘The spread of information and communications technology and global interconnectedness has great potential to accelerate human progress, to bridge the digital divide and to develop knowledge societies,’ and calls for the international community to ‘significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020.’[50]

435 Leave a comment on paragraph 435 0 C.1 Do national and sectoral development policies and strategies for sustainable development effectively incorporate ICTs, broadband and the Internet?

436 Leave a comment on paragraph 436 0 Indicators:

  • 437 Leave a comment on paragraph 437 0
  • Existence of an up-to-date, comprehensive and forward-looking policy for the development of ICTs, broadband and the Internet
  • Inclusion of up-to-date policies and strategies for broadband and the Internet in national strategies to monitor and achieve the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
  • Inclusion of up-to-date policies and strategies for broadband and the Internet in selected economic and social sectors (such as enterprise, agriculture, education, health)

438 Leave a comment on paragraph 438 0 C.2 Does the government have an agreed policy on the management of e-waste and is this implemented effectively?

439 Leave a comment on paragraph 439 0 Indicators:

441 Leave a comment on paragraph 441 0 C.3 Are there adequate arrangements in place for monitoring the development of the Internet and its impact on society?

442 Leave a comment on paragraph 442 0 Indicators:

  • 443 Leave a comment on paragraph 443 0
  • Existence of national statistical office
  • Arrangements for statistical monitoring of Internet access and use, including household surveys
  • Arrangements for regular review and revision of policies relating to the Internet and its impact on sustainable development

444 Leave a comment on paragraph 444 0 C.4 Does the government have a long-term strategy to address new developments in information technology and incorporate these in development, with multistakeholder participation?

445 Leave a comment on paragraph 445 0 Indicator:

447 Leave a comment on paragraph 447 0 C.5 What proportion of adult citizens make use of major online services?

448 Leave a comment on paragraph 448 0 Indicator:

  • 449 Leave a comment on paragraph 449 0
  • Proportion of adult citizens using e-government services in specific categories, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Proportion of adult citizens using mobile and online financial services, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Proportion of adult citizens using online learning services
  • Proportion of adult citizens using online health services

450 Leave a comment on paragraph 450 0 C.6 What proportion of public service facilities have Internet access?

451 Leave a comment on paragraph 451 0 Indicators:

453 Leave a comment on paragraph 453 0 C.7 What proportion of businesses, including small and medium sized businesses make use of the Internet and e-commerce?

454 Leave a comment on paragraph 454 0 Indicators:

  • 455 Leave a comment on paragraph 455 0
  • Proportion of business-to-business activity undertaken through e-commerce
  • Proportion of SMEs using the Internet, by type of access
  • Proportion of SMEs trading (and exporting) online
  • Volume of business-to-business and business-to-consumer activity as a proportion of total relevant activity
  • Perceptions of value of Internet use by SMEs

456 Leave a comment on paragraph 456 0 GROUP D – TRUST AND SECURITY

457 Leave a comment on paragraph 457 0 Issues of trust and security are increasingly important to the future of the Internet. As well as the threats to businesses and individuals posed by cybercrime, this theme addresses threats to critical infrastructure and databases which may come from diverse sources, including governments, non-state actors, criminal organisations and individuals.

458 Leave a comment on paragraph 458 0 F.1 Is there a national cybersecurity strategy, with multistakeholder engagement, including a national computer emergency response team (CERT) or equivalent?

459 Leave a comment on paragraph 459 0 Indicators:

  • 460 Leave a comment on paragraph 460 0
  • Existence of cybersecurity strategy, with multistakeholder involvement, which is consistent with international standards
  • Establishment of national CERT or equivalent, and evidence concerning its effectiveness

461 Leave a comment on paragraph 461 0 F.2 Is there a legal and regulatory framework for consumer rights online?

462 Leave a comment on paragraph 462 0 Indicator:

464 Leave a comment on paragraph 464 0 F.3 Have there been significant breaches of cybersecurity in the country within the last three years?

465 Leave a comment on paragraph 465 0 Indicator:

  • 466 Leave a comment on paragraph 466 0
  • Number and extent of breaches, and numbers of citizens and businesses affected
  • Perceptions of Internet security
  • Arrangements for and data concerning phishing, spam and bots in national level domains

467 Leave a comment on paragraph 467 0 F.4 Are citizens and businesses taking action to reduce risks to their security and privacy?

468 Leave a comment on paragraph 468 0 Indicators:

  • 469 Leave a comment on paragraph 469 0
  • Proportions of Internet users with uptodate malware protection
  • Evidence of business awareness of and contingency plans to counteract cybersecurity attacks
  • Extent to which encryption services are used by citizens and businesses
  • Consideration should be given and cross-reference made to data/evidence for Category R Question E.5, which is concerned with law and practice concerning encryption and anonymity

470 Leave a comment on paragraph 470 0 F.5 Do citizens and businesses show a high level of awareness of cybersecurity risks and a high level of trust in the security of the Internet?

471 Leave a comment on paragraph 471 0 Indicator:

473 Leave a comment on paragraph 473 0 GROUP E – LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNET

474 Leave a comment on paragraph 474 0 There has been increasing concern about the use of the Internet in ways that adversely affect individual users or potentially undermine trust and confidence in the Internet. Many issues in this context have both legal and ethical implications.

475 Leave a comment on paragraph 475 0 D.1 Is there a national policy framework concerned with legal and ethical challenges raised by usage of the Internet which is consistent with international rights agreements?

476 Leave a comment on paragraph 476 0 Indicator:

  • 477 Leave a comment on paragraph 477 0
  • Existence and assessment of national legal frameworks concerned with hate speech, harassment and discrimination online and offline, which are consistent with international rights agreements

478 Leave a comment on paragraph 478 0 D.2 Are there any multistakeholder or private sector self-regulatory bodies concerned with ethical aspects of the Internet?

479 Leave a comment on paragraph 479 0 Indicators:

480 Leave a comment on paragraph 480 0 Existence or otherwise of relevant multistakeholder or self-regulatory bodies

481 Leave a comment on paragraph 481 0 D.3 How do citizens perceive the benefits, risks and impact of the Internet within the country?

482 Leave a comment on paragraph 482 0 Indicator:

484 Leave a comment on paragraph 484 0 D.4 Do Internet users in the country report experiencing significant harassment or abuse at the hands of other Internet users which deters them from making full use of the Internet?

485 Leave a comment on paragraph 485 0 Indicator:

  • 486 Leave a comment on paragraph 486 0
  • Data on the extent to which Internet users report harassment or abuse, with particular attention to specific social groups (including women, ethnic and other minorities, and political activists)

487 Leave a comment on paragraph 487 0 D.5 Do Internet users in the country report experiencing significant levels of cybercrime?

488 Leave a comment on paragraph 488 0 Indicators:

  • 489 Leave a comment on paragraph 489 0
  • Number of reports of Internet-enabled crime by category per thousand people, compared with other countries
  • Number and trend of prosecutions for cybercrime
  • Perceptions of the Internet and Internet content (in household surveys and opinion polling)
  • Evidence from credible sources concerning the prevalence of online disinformation

490 Leave a comment on paragraph 490 0 D.6 Is there adequate protection for e-commerce consumers?

491 Leave a comment on paragraph 491 0 Indicators:

  • 492 Leave a comment on paragraph 492 0
  • Legal framework for online consumer protection
  • Number (and trend) of complaints and prosecutions related to online consumer protection
  • Perceptions of the adequacy of protection against online fraud and criminality

493 Leave a comment on paragraph 493 0 D.7 Do citizens believe that the content of online sources of information is determined or manipulated by the government, foreign governments, commercial or partisan interests?

494 Leave a comment on paragraph 494 0 Indicator:

  • 495 Leave a comment on paragraph 495 0
  • Evidence from credible sources of government or other stakeholders seeking to disseminate disinformation
  • Perceptions of the Internet and Internet content (in household surveys and opinion polling)
  1. 496 Leave a comment on paragraph 496 0
  2. https://en.unesco.org/internetuniversality
  3. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/resources/publications-and-communication-materials/publications/full-list/media-development-indicators-a-framework-for-assessing-media-development/
  4. http://en.unesco.org/programme/ipdc
  5. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.PP.CD
  6. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS
  7. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/
  8. http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.688
  9. ibid.
  10. https://www.ethnologue.com/statistics/country; https://www.ethnologue.com/browse/countries
  11. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/
  12. http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/HDI
  13. http://data.uis.unesco.org/Index.aspx?queryid=242
  14. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS
  15. http://www.indexmundi.com/facts/indicators/EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS
  16. https://www.indexmundi.com/facts/indicators/SI.POV.GINI/rankings
  17. http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/gender-inequality-index-gii
  18. http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/#home
  19. https://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/doing-business-database
  20. http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/publications/mis/methodology.aspx.
  21. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/07/what-is-networked-readiness-and-why-does-it-matter/
  22. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld, para. 8
  23. http://www.un.org/en/udhrbook/pdf/udhr_booklet_en_web.pdf
  24. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CCPR.aspx
  25. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx
  26. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CERD.aspx
  27. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/
  28. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CRC.aspx
  29. http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/E/HRC/d_res_dec/A_HRC_20_L13.doc
  30. http://workspace.unpan.org/sites/Internet/Documents/UNPAN96078.pdf, para. 43
  31. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/156/90/PDF/G1615690.pdf?OpenElement
  32. https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/unts/volume%20999/volume-999-i-14668-english.pdf
  33. ibid.
  34. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrc/docs/GC34.pdf
  35. The relationship between the Internet and freedom of expression are explored in the 2011 report of the Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Opinion and Expression, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/17session/A.HRC.17.27_en.pdf
  36. https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/unts/volume%20999/volume-999-i-14668-english.pdf
  37. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrc/docs/GC34.pdf
  38. The most recent report is that from 2017: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G17/086/31/PDF/G1708631.pdf?OpenElement
  39. Issues concerning surveillance are addressed in the 2014 resolution of the UN General Assembly concerning ‘privacy in the digital age,’ http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/69/166
  40. Issues concerning encryption and anonymity are addressed in the 2015 report of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Freedom of Opinion and Expression, www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/…/A.HRC.29.32_AEV.doc
  41. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx
  42. e.g. the OECD Internet Policy Making Principles for OECD countries
  43. e.g. the Open Data Charter, https://opendatacharter.net/#
  44. e.g. value and ranking in the World Wide Web Foundation’s Open Data Barometer
  45. http://www.itu.int/en/connect2020/Pages/default.aspx
  46. http://broadbandcommission.org/Documents/Targets-Separated/Target-2.pdf
  47. http://a4ai.org/1for2-affordability-target/
  48. e.g. the Affordability Drivers Index of the Alliance for Affordable Internet, http://a4ai.org/affordability-report/data/?_year=2017&indicator=INDEX
  49. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001587/158723e.pdf
  50. https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/facts/ICTFactsFigures2017.pdf
  51. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld

Source: http://internetuniversality.apc.org/index.php/2018/01/18/developing-unescos-internet-universality-indicators-eng/