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Developing Unesco’s Internet Universality Indicators

1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 1 DEVELOPING UNESCO’S INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS: HELP UNESCO TO ASSESS AND IMPROVE THE INTERNET

2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 0 INTRODUCTION

3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 This consultation document invites stakeholders to contribute to UNESCO’s project to develop indicators to assess the Internet in any country, and highlight areas where improvements can be made. More information about the project can be found online.

4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 0 BACKGROUND

5 Leave a comment on paragraph 5 0 UNESCO launched its concept of Internet Universality in 2013.  This concept, which was endorsed by UNESCO’s General Conference in 2015, embraces four principles which have been and should continue to be fundamental to the development of the Internet and its role in advancing the world’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):

6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 R – that the Internet is based on human Rights
O – that it is Open
A – that it should be Accessible to all
M – that it is nurtured by Multistakeholder participation.

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 Together these are known as the ROAM Principles.

8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 UNESCO intends to adopt a framework of Internet Universality indicators to assist governments and other stakeholders to assess their national Internet environments and develop policies to advance these Principles.  These indicators will be comparable to the Media Development Indicators adopted by UNESCO in 2008.  They are intended for use by stakeholders in interested countries where resources can be mobilised for the necessary research.  The aim of applying the indicators is to identify gaps within a country in relation to Internet Universality, and to make appropriate recommendations concerning policy and practice. They are not intended to rank countries in comparison with one another.

9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 This document follows the first phase of consultation, which lasted from 29 March to 31 October 2017 and was concerned with general principles.  It included 24 face-to-face consultation meetings in 21 countries and attracted 165 online contributions.

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 The second phase of consultation, which will last from 1 December 2017 to 15 March 2018, provides an opportunity to comment on the proposed indicator framework and indicators set out in this document.  A final report, building on this second phase and pre-testing of proposals, will be submitted to UNESCO at the end of April 2018 and considered in September 2018 by the International Council of its International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC).

11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 Stakeholders are invited, in this second consultation, to respond to the following three questions by 15 March 2018.  It will not be possible to consider contributions received after this date.

  1. 12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0
  2. Are there any additional themes, questions or indicators which you believe should be included in the framework?

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  1. 14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0
  2. Are there any suggestions that you wish to make in respect of the proposed themes, questions and indicators which are included in the framework as it stands?

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  1. 16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0
  2. What sources and means of verification would you recommend, from your experience, in relation to any of the questions and indicators that have been proposed?

17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 THE INDICATOR FRAMEWORK

18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 1 The indicator framework which is proposed in this document is structured around the four ROAM Principles, alongside Cross-Cutting Indicators concerned with gender and the needs of children and young people, sustainable development, trust and security, and legal and ethical aspects of the Internet.  Together, these form the ROAMX indicator framework which is illustrated in Figure 1 below.

19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 In addition, the framework includes a number of contextual indicators concerned with the demographic, social and economic characteristics of a country, which are intended to help users to understand their findings and frame their recommendations in the most appropriate way for different countries.

20 Leave a comment on paragraph 20 0 Figure 1 – The indicator structure

21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 0

22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 The indicators which are proposed within this framework provide a toolkit which can be used by diverse stakeholders, including governments, international organisations, civil society organisations and multistakeholder groups drawn from the various communities that are concerned with Internet development, access and rights.  It can be used either holistically or through its component parts.

23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 Categories.  The framework as a whole is structured around five categories which focus on the four ROAM principles, together with a category of Cross-Cutting Indicators (X) (Figure 2).

24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 Themes.  Each of the ROAMX indicators is divided into a number of themes.  There are six themes in the R and A categories, five themes in the O and X categories, and three themes in the M category.

25 Leave a comment on paragraph 25 0 Questions.  A number of questions are set out within each theme.  These address the specific points on which national performance is to be assessed and on which evidence is to be sought through specific quantitative, qualitative or institutional indicators.

26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 0 Indicators.  One or more indicators is/are identified which will provide the evidence base for assessment of each question.  These include quantitative, qualitative and institutional indicators.  The range and quality of information available on these will vary between countries.

27 Leave a comment on paragraph 27 0 Sources.  The final report, in April 2018, will include a substantive note on means of verification for each indicator or group of indicators.  This will offer guidance to those making use of the indicators, recognising that available data and information sources vary significantly between countries.

28 Leave a comment on paragraph 28 0 Figure 2 – The indicator structure

29 Leave a comment on paragraph 29 0

30 Leave a comment on paragraph 30 0 Six criteria have been used for the selection of the questions and indicators that are proposed in this report.  These are consistent with those adopted in the MDIs.  They are:

  • 31 Leave a comment on paragraph 31 0
  • that each question/indicator should address a single issue;
  • that indicators should be chosen where measurement data are sufficiently reliable in quality to permit confident decision-making;
  • that the selected indicators should be quantitative where possible and qualitative where appropriate;
  • that they should be independently verifiable where possible;
  • that they should, where possible and relevant, permit disaggregation by gender, age group and other population characteristics;
  • and that it should be possible for the necessary data or information to be gathered, at reasonable cost in time and money, in the majority of countries.

32 Leave a comment on paragraph 32 1 The indicators which are proposed below are wide-ranging.  Data availability will vary between countries and available resources will vary between assessments.  The number of questions/indicators included in the final framework, which will be prepared following the second consultation, may be more or less than that included in this document.  It is hoped that users of the framework will draw on those indicators to make as thorough an assessment as available data and resources allow.

33 Leave a comment on paragraph 33 0 THE INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS – CONTEXTUAL INDICATORS

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36 Leave a comment on paragraph 36 0  

  1. 37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 0
  2. Gross National Income (GNI) (purchasing power parity) per capita

38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set on GNI p.c. maintained by the World Bank.

  1. 39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0
  2. GNI growth rate over the past ten years

40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set on GNI p.c. maintained by the World Bank.

  1. 41 Leave a comment on paragraph 41 0
  2. Proportion of GDP attributable to services

42 Leave a comment on paragraph 42 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set on sectoral distribution of GDP which is maintained by the World Bank.

43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0  

46 Leave a comment on paragraph 46 0  

47 Leave a comment on paragraph 47 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set on population size maintained by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

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50 Leave a comment on paragraph 50 0  

51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set concerning life expectancy maintained by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

52 Leave a comment on paragraph 52 0  

54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0  

55 Leave a comment on paragraph 55 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set on population by age group maintained by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

56 Leave a comment on paragraph 56 0  

58 Leave a comment on paragraph 58 0  

59 Leave a comment on paragraph 59 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the index of linguistic diversity (with country summaries) maintained by Ethnologue.

60 Leave a comment on paragraph 60 0  

62 Leave a comment on paragraph 62 0  

63 Leave a comment on paragraph 63 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the data set on urban and rural population size maintained by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

64 Leave a comment on paragraph 64 0  

67 Leave a comment on paragraph 67 0  

68 Leave a comment on paragraph 68 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the HDI prepared by UNDP and reported in its annual Human Development Report.

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71 Leave a comment on paragraph 71 0  

72 Leave a comment on paragraph 72 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator consists of data sets which are gathered by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.

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75 Leave a comment on paragraph 75 0  

76 Leave a comment on paragraph 76 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator consists of data gathered by the World Bank.

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79 Leave a comment on paragraph 79 0  

80 Leave a comment on paragraph 80 0 The principal sources proposed for this indicator is the World Bank’s Sustainable Energy for All database.

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84 Leave a comment on paragraph 84 0  

85 Leave a comment on paragraph 85 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the GINI index produced by the World Bank.

86 Leave a comment on paragraph 86 0  

88 Leave a comment on paragraph 88 0  

89 Leave a comment on paragraph 89 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the Gender Inequality Index generated by the UN Development Programme.

90 Leave a comment on paragraph 90 0  

93 Leave a comment on paragraph 93 0  

94 Leave a comment on paragraph 94 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator are the six aggregate World Governance Indicators developed by the World Bank.

95 Leave a comment on paragraph 95 0  

97 Leave a comment on paragraph 97 0  

98 Leave a comment on paragraph 98 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the Doing Business Index prepared by the World Bank.

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102 Leave a comment on paragraph 102 0  

103 Leave a comment on paragraph 103 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the ICT Development Index prepared by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

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106 Leave a comment on paragraph 106 0  

107 Leave a comment on paragraph 107 0 The principal source proposed for this indicator is the Networked Readiness Index prepared by the World Economic Forum.

108 Leave a comment on paragraph 108 0 THE INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS – CATEGORY R – RIGHTS

109 Leave a comment on paragraph 109 0 The United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development envisages ‘a world of universal respect for human rights and human dignity, the rule of law, justice, equality and non-discrimination; of respect for race, ethnicity and cultural diversity; and of equal opportunity permitting the full realization of human potential and contributing to shared prosperity.’  An Internet that failed to uphold this principle would be incompatible with the Agenda.

110 Leave a comment on paragraph 110 0 This category of the indicator framework is divided into six themes:

  • 111 Leave a comment on paragraph 111 0
  • Theme A is concerned with the overall policy, legal and regulatory framework for human rights and their relation to the Internet.
  • Theme B is concerned with freedom of expression.
  • Theme C is concerned with the right to access information.
  • Theme D is concerned with freedom of association and with rights to participate in public life.
  • Theme E is concerned with issues relating to privacy.
  • Theme F is concerned with economic, social and cultural rights.

112 Leave a comment on paragraph 112 2 THEME A – POLICY, LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

113 Leave a comment on paragraph 113 0 The fundamental principles of human rights have been agreed by the international community in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and international rights agreements including the International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the Conventions on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) and of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).  A number of regional rights agreements have also been agreed.

114 Leave a comment on paragraph 114 0 The UN Human Rights Committee and the General Assembly have affirmed that ‘the same rights that people have offline must also be protected online.’  The UN Human Rights Council has adopted several resolutions on ‘the promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet,’ which address aspects of these and subsequent questions and indicators, most recently in 2016.

115 Leave a comment on paragraph 115 0 A.1    Is there a legal framework for the enjoyment and enforcement of human rights which is consistent with international rights agreements and with the rule of law?

116 Leave a comment on paragraph 116 1     Indicator:  

117 Leave a comment on paragraph 117 0  

  • 118 Leave a comment on paragraph 118 2
  • Existence of an established legal framework which is consistent with international (including regional) rights agreements, and evidence that it is respected and enforced by government

119 Leave a comment on paragraph 119 0  

120 Leave a comment on paragraph 120 1 A.2    Does the law recognise that rights and laws apply equally online and offline?

121 Leave a comment on paragraph 121 0     Indicator:  

122 Leave a comment on paragraph 122 0  

124 Leave a comment on paragraph 124 0  

125 Leave a comment on paragraph 125 1 A.3    Do citizens have access to due process to address violations of rights, online and offline, by state or non-state actors?

126 Leave a comment on paragraph 126 1     Indicator:  

127 Leave a comment on paragraph 127 0  

130 Leave a comment on paragraph 130 0  

131 Leave a comment on paragraph 131 0 A.4    Are law officers, judges and legal professionals trained in issues relating to the Internet and human rights?

132 Leave a comment on paragraph 132 1     Indicator:  

134 Leave a comment on paragraph 134 1 THEME B – FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION

135 Leave a comment on paragraph 135 0 Article 19 of the UDHR and Article 19 of the ICCPR both deal with freedom of expression.  This is defined in article 19(2) of the ICCPR as including an individual’s ‘freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.’  Article 19(3) of the ICCPR states that the exercise of these rights ‘may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary … for respect of the rights or reputations of others; [or] … for the protection of national security or of public order …, or of public health or morals.’  Regional rights agreements also include relevant provisions.  The UN Human Rights Committee emphasised in its General Comment No. 34 (2011) that any such restrictions must be provided by law, necessary for the explicit purposes set out in the Article, and proportionate.

136 Leave a comment on paragraph 136 0 B.1    Is freedom of expression guaranteed in law, respected in practice, and widely exercised?

137 Leave a comment on paragraph 137 1     Indicators:  

  • 138 Leave a comment on paragraph 138 1
  • Constitutional or legal guarantee of freedom of expression consistent with ICCPR Article 19, and evidence that it is respected and enforced by government
  • Constitutional or legal guarantee of press/media freedom
  • Assessment by credible agencies of extent and diversity of expression online and offline

139 Leave a comment on paragraph 139 2 B.2    Are any restrictions on freedom of expression in policy and practice narrowly defined, transparent and implemented in accordance with international rights agreements and HRC resolutions?

140 Leave a comment on paragraph 140 0     Indicator:  

  • 141 Leave a comment on paragraph 141 1
  • Legal restrictions on freedom of expression are consistent with international rights agreements (including regional agreements) and respected by government

142 Leave a comment on paragraph 142 2 B.3    Is there significant ex ante or ex post censorship of specific content posted on online services, applications or websites, and on what grounds is this exercised?

143 Leave a comment on paragraph 143 1     Indicator:  

145 Leave a comment on paragraph 145 0 B.4    Under what conditions does the law hold platforms and other online service providers liable for content published by them?

146 Leave a comment on paragraph 146 0     Indicator:  

  • 147 Leave a comment on paragraph 147 0
  • Legal framework for intermediary liability and content regulation is consistent with international rights agreements (including regional agreements) and proportionally implemented

148 Leave a comment on paragraph 148 1 B.5    What proportion of the population generates online content, including social media?

149 Leave a comment on paragraph 149 0     Indicator:  

151 Leave a comment on paragraph 151 2 B.6    Are low-cost online services available which enable citizens and civil society organisations to make use of the Internet to express their views?

152 Leave a comment on paragraph 152 0     Indicators:  

  • 153 Leave a comment on paragraph 153 1
  • Availability of low-cost blogging and webhosting services
  • Legal restrictions, if any, on access to such services
  • Incidence of use of social media and blogging services

154 Leave a comment on paragraph 154 1 B.7    Are citizens, journalists or bloggers subject to arbitrary detention, prosecution or intimidation for disseminating information online on political and social issues?

155 Leave a comment on paragraph 155 0     Indicators:  

157 Leave a comment on paragraph 157 0  

158 Leave a comment on paragraph 158 1 B.8    Do journalists or citizens practice self-censorship in order to avoid harassment by government or online abuse?

159 Leave a comment on paragraph 159 0     Indicators:  

  • 160 Leave a comment on paragraph 160 2
  • Evidence of self-censorship by journalists/bloggers
  • Evidence of self-censorship as a result of online abuse, particularly by women and children/young people

161 Leave a comment on paragraph 161 1 THEME C – RIGHT TO INFORMATION

162 Leave a comment on paragraph 162 1 Article 19(2) of the ICCPR asserts the freedom ‘to seek … information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, … through any … media of … choice.’  Article 19(3) of the ICCPR (see Theme B above) and related provisions in other international and regional rights agreements also address access to information.  As with freedom of expression, the Human Rights Committee has asserted the importance of legal frameworks, requirement for necessity and proportionality in any restrictions permitted to these rights.

163 Leave a comment on paragraph 163 0 C.1    Is the right to information guaranteed in law and respected in practice?

164 Leave a comment on paragraph 164 0     Indicators:  

  • 165 Leave a comment on paragraph 165 3
  • Constitutional or legal guarantee of access to information consistent with international rights agreements (including regional agreements) and evidence that it is respected and enforced by government

166 Leave a comment on paragraph 166 1 C.2    Does the government block or filter access to the Internet or to specific online services, applications or websites, and on what grounds is this exercised?

167 Leave a comment on paragraph 167 1     Indicators:  

  • 168 Leave a comment on paragraph 168 1
  • Evidence concerning formal and informal restrictions on Internet access and use
  • Numbers and trend of content access restrictions, takedowns of domain names and other interventions during the past twelve months

169 Leave a comment on paragraph 169 1 C.3    Are citizens, journalists or bloggers subject to detention, prosecution or intimidation for accessing information online, particularly on political and social issues?

170 Leave a comment on paragraph 170 0     Indicators:  

  • 171 Leave a comment on paragraph 171 2
  • Nature of legal provisions and practice
  • Numbers of detentions and prosecutions for access to content which is not prohibited by international agreement

172 Leave a comment on paragraph 172 0  

173 Leave a comment on paragraph 173 0 C.4    Is a wide variety of news sources and viewpoints on issues of national importance available online, without discrimination?

174 Leave a comment on paragraph 174 0     Indicator:  

  • 175 Leave a comment on paragraph 175 1
  • Evidence concerning diversity and plurality of local content, including disaggregation by gender and socio-economic factors
  • Diversity of newspapers and news operations concerned with local news, online and offline
  • Consideration should be given and cross-reference made to data/evidence for Category X Question D.7 which is concerned with the manipulation of information.

176 Leave a comment on paragraph 176 2 THEME D – FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION AND THE RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN PUBLIC LIFE

177 Leave a comment on paragraph 177 0 Article 21 of the ICCPR establishes the right of peaceful assembly, and Article 22 the right to freedom of association with others.  Both state that no restrictions may be placed on these other than ‘those which are prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public order …, the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.’

178 Leave a comment on paragraph 178 0 Article 25 of the ICCPR states that ‘Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity … to take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely chosen representatives,’ and ‘to have access, on general terms of equality, to public service in his country.’

179 Leave a comment on paragraph 179 0 D.1    Is freedom of association guaranteed in law and respected in practice?

180 Leave a comment on paragraph 180 0     Indicator:  

  • 181 Leave a comment on paragraph 181 1
  • Existence of an established legal framework that is consistent with international rights agreements, and evidence that it is respected and enforced by government

182 Leave a comment on paragraph 182 0 D.2    Can civil society organisations organise effectively online?

183 Leave a comment on paragraph 183 0     Indicator:  

185 Leave a comment on paragraph 185 0 D.3    Is there a government policy for e-government and e-participation which encourages citizen participation in government?

186 Leave a comment on paragraph 186 0     Indicators:  

  • 187 Leave a comment on paragraph 187 1
  • Existence of government policies for e-government and e-participation, including use of the Internet for public consultation
  • Values/rankings in UNDESA’s e-government and e-participation indices

188 Leave a comment on paragraph 188 2 D.4    Are government websites available which enable citizens to undertake a wide range of e-government activities securely online as well as offline?

189 Leave a comment on paragraph 189 1     Indicators:  

  • 190 Leave a comment on paragraph 190 0
  • Number of e-government services and users (disaggregated by gender)
  • Extent to which data on e-government sites are protected by encryption and cybersecurity
  • Credible reports concerning cybersecurity of government websites and services (e.g. use of https)

191 Leave a comment on paragraph 191 1 THEME E – PRIVACY

192 Leave a comment on paragraph 192 0 Article 12 of the UDHR and Article 17 of the ICCPR are concerned with privacy.  Article 17 of the ICCPR provides that ‘No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence.’  Regional rights agreements also address issues of privacy in their regions.  The UN General Assembly has adopted a number of resolutions concerning ‘the right to privacy in the digital age,’ which, in addition to general principles, have addressed issues including surveillance, encryption and anonymity.

193 Leave a comment on paragraph 193 0 E.1    Is the right to privacy guaranteed in law and respected in practice?

194 Leave a comment on paragraph 194 0     Indicator:  

196 Leave a comment on paragraph 196 0 E.2    Is the protection of personal data guaranteed in law and enforced in practice, with respect to governments, businesses and other organisations, including rights of access to information held and to redress?

197 Leave a comment on paragraph 197 1     Indicator:  

  • 198 Leave a comment on paragraph 198 3
  • Existence of a legal framework for data protection, including monitoring mechanisms and means of recourse and redress, and evidence that it is respected and enforced by government
  • Existence of legal framework governing commercial use of personal data and international data transfer, including monitoring mechanisms and means of recourse and redress
  • Existence of an independent data protection authority

199 Leave a comment on paragraph 199 0 E.3    Are the powers of law enforcement and other agencies for the surveillance of Internet users necessary, proportionate and limited to circumstances which are consistent with international rights agreements?

200 Leave a comment on paragraph 200 0     Indicator:  

201 Leave a comment on paragraph 201 3 Legal framework for surveillance, and evidence concerning implementation

202 Leave a comment on paragraph 202 0 E.4    Are any requirements for identification and registration, including communications registration, necessary, proportionate and consistent with international rights agreements?

203 Leave a comment on paragraph 203 0     Indicator:  

205 Leave a comment on paragraph 205 2 E.5    Are data encryption and online anonymity protected in law and practice in a way that is consistent with international rights agreements?

206 Leave a comment on paragraph 206 0     Indicator:  

208 Leave a comment on paragraph 208 0 E.6    Do citizens have legal rights to protect their online identity and to manage or correct information concerning them online, in ways that protect both privacy and freedom of expression?

209 Leave a comment on paragraph 209 0     Indicator:  

211 Leave a comment on paragraph 211 0 E.7    Are government requirements for Internet businesses to provide information to government agencies concerning Internet users necessary, proportionate, transparent and consistent with international rights agreements?

212 Leave a comment on paragraph 212 1     Indicator:  

214 Leave a comment on paragraph 214 0 THEME F – SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL RIGHTS

215 Leave a comment on paragraph 215 0 Economic, social and cultural rights are identified and elaborated in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).  Articles 3 to 14 are concerned with the progressive realisation of rights concerned with employment, social security, family life, freedom from hunger, health and education.  Article 15 recognises the right of everyone to take part in cultural life.  This theme should be considered in conjunction with Category X Theme C, which is concerned with sustainable development.

216 Leave a comment on paragraph 216 0 F.1    Do government policies incorporate the Internet in strategies concerned with employment, health and education, with particular reference to ICESCR rights?

217 Leave a comment on paragraph 217 0     Indicator:  

  • 218 Leave a comment on paragraph 218 0
  • Evidence of inclusion of the Internet, and of IECESCR rights, in sector strategies for employment, health and education
  • Evidence of analysis by government of the impact of Internet on employment, health and education

219 Leave a comment on paragraph 219 1 F.2    Are all citizens equally able to take advantage of the Internet to participate in cultural activity?

220 Leave a comment on paragraph 220 0     Indicator:  

  • 221 Leave a comment on paragraph 221 1
  • Extent and nature of differences in Internet access and use between different communities/ethnicities
  • Existence or otherwise of government policy concerning cultural heritage online
  • Constitutional or legal guarantee of freedom of artistic expression

222 Leave a comment on paragraph 222 0 THE INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS – CATEGORY O – OPENNESS

223 Leave a comment on paragraph 223 1 Internet Universality’s second principle is that the Internet should be open for all to develop or take advantage of its resources and opportunities in whatever ways seem most appropriate or valuable to them.  The category of openness is concerned alike, therefore, with technical issues, markets, content and trust in the Internet and Internet-enabled services, including issues such as open source software and development, open government, open data and open educational resources.  Through openness, Internet Universality acknowledges the integrity of the Internet as enabling a common global exchange, rather than being confined to ‘walled gardens’ based on incompatible technologies.

224 Leave a comment on paragraph 224 0 This category is divided into five themes:

  • 225 Leave a comment on paragraph 225 0
  • Theme A is concerned with the overall policy, legal and regulatory framework.
  • Theme B is concerned with open standards.
  • Theme C is concerned with open markets.
  • Theme D is concerned with open content.
  • Theme E is concerned with open data.

226 Leave a comment on paragraph 226 0 THEME A – POLICY, LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

227 Leave a comment on paragraph 227 1 An appropriate policy, legal and regulatory framework – including research support, standardisation and multistakeholder governance structures – is necessary to support an evidence-based, transparent and forward-looking policymaking process that will preserve the Internet as an open and universal resource.

228 Leave a comment on paragraph 228 0 A.1    Is there an overall policy, legal and regulatory framework for Internet development and policymaking which is consistent with international norms concerning openness and transparency?

229 Leave a comment on paragraph 229 0     Indicators:

  • 230 Leave a comment on paragraph 230 1
  • Existence of an overall framework consistent with relevant international norms
  • Existence of legal and regulatory frameworks to enable e-commerce, digital signatures, cybersecurity, data protection and consumer protection

231 Leave a comment on paragraph 231 1 A.2    Does the legal and regulatory framework for business, academia and civil society facilitate innovation on the Internet?

232 Leave a comment on paragraph 232 0     Indicators:  

234 Leave a comment on paragraph 234 0  

236 Leave a comment on paragraph 236 0  

237 Leave a comment on paragraph 237 0 A.3    Are there restrictions on which organisations or individuals can establish Internet, or Internet-enabled, services?

238 Leave a comment on paragraph 238 0     Indicator:  

240 Leave a comment on paragraph 240 0 THEME B – OPEN STANDARDS

241 Leave a comment on paragraph 241 0 Open standards play a crucial role in promoting interoperability, and thereby innovation and the diversity of service provision on the Internet.

242 Leave a comment on paragraph 242 0 B.1    Does the legal and regulatory framework encourage or constrain investment and innovation using all available technologies?

243 Leave a comment on paragraph 243 0     Indicators:  

  • 244 Leave a comment on paragraph 244 1
  • Evidence concerning government policy and practice towards online innovation, including procurement
  • Number and survival rate of Internet-related start-ups

245 Leave a comment on paragraph 245 0 B.2    Do national standards setting processes conform to international standards including due process, transparency, balance and openness to participation by all interested parties?

246 Leave a comment on paragraph 246 0     Indicator:  

248 Leave a comment on paragraph 248 0 B.3    Does the government facilitate free and open-source software (FOSS)?

249 Leave a comment on paragraph 249 0     Indicator:  

251 Leave a comment on paragraph 251 0 B.4    How extensively are developments in Internet protocols and standards implemented within the country?

252 Leave a comment on paragraph 252 0     Indicator:  

254 Leave a comment on paragraph 254 0 THEME C – OPEN MARKETS

255 Leave a comment on paragraph 255 0 Open markets for networks and communications services facilitate consumer choice, stimulate innovation and generally lead to lower prices and improve quality of service for end-users.

256 Leave a comment on paragraph 256 0 C.1    Is there independent regulation of communications markets, undertaken in accordance with international norms and standards?

257 Leave a comment on paragraph 257 0     Indicator:  

259 Leave a comment on paragraph 259 0 C.2    Are licensing and allocation of critical resources (including spectrum, domain names and IP addresses) flexible, technology- and service-neutral, non-restrictive and non-discriminatory?

260 Leave a comment on paragraph 260 0     Indicator:  

262 Leave a comment on paragraph 262 0 C.3    Is there independent management of the domain name system?

263 Leave a comment on paragraph 263 1     Indicators:

265 Leave a comment on paragraph 265 0 C.4    Is there sufficiently effective competition in access networks to protect consumer interests?

266 Leave a comment on paragraph 266 0     Indicators:  

268 Leave a comment on paragraph 268 0 C.5    Can Internet users choose between diverse Internet service providers, including domain name registrars, ISPs and online services?

269 Leave a comment on paragraph 269 0     Indicators:  

  • 270 Leave a comment on paragraph 270 0
  • Number of and distribution of market shares between domain name registrars
  • Number of and distribution of market shares between ISPs
  • Presence or absence of restrictions on access to international online service providers (including, for example, search, social media, microblogging, news access and e-commerce platforms)
  • Extent and diversity of use of national and international online service providers in core areas of Internet use (including, for example, search, social media, microblogging, news access and e-commerce platforms)

271 Leave a comment on paragraph 271 0 C.6    Are there Internet Exchange Points and effective peering arrangements for exchange of Internet traffic?

272 Leave a comment on paragraph 272 0     Indicator:  

  • 273 Leave a comment on paragraph 273 0
  • Existence and effective management of IXP(s)
  • Proportion of national traffic using IXPs, including trend
  • Latency levels to access national, regional and international servers

274 Leave a comment on paragraph 274 0 THEME D – OPEN CONTENT

275 Leave a comment on paragraph 275 0 The theme of open content is concerned with providing for the availability of content of all kinds, including public information and information from other sources within and beyond the country, which can be made available online.  Open content approaches seek to maximise the availability of content to end-users, through open licensing arrangements, without infringing international intellectual property agreements.

276 Leave a comment on paragraph 276 0 D.1    Does the government actively promote access to knowledge through its policies for education, culture and science?

277 Leave a comment on paragraph 277 0     Indicator:

279 Leave a comment on paragraph 279 0  

280 Leave a comment on paragraph 280 0 D.2    Do arrangements for intellectual property protection balance the interests of copyright holders and information users in ways that promote innovation and creativity?

281 Leave a comment on paragraph 281 0     Indicator:  

  • 282 Leave a comment on paragraph 282 0
  • Nature of the legal arrangements for copyright enforcement
  • Government adoption of creative commons and other open access forms of intellectual property

283 Leave a comment on paragraph 283 0  

284 Leave a comment on paragraph 284 1 D.3    Does the government provide or encourage access to and facilitate sharing of public information?

285 Leave a comment on paragraph 285 0     Indicators:  

287 Leave a comment on paragraph 287 0  

  • 288 Leave a comment on paragraph 288 0
  • Consideration should be given and cross-reference made to data/evidence for indicators concerning government policies on e-government and e-participation (Category R: Questions D.3, D.4) and public access facilities which can be used to access public information (Category A: Question A.5)

289 Leave a comment on paragraph 289 0  

290 Leave a comment on paragraph 290 0  

291 Leave a comment on paragraph 291 0 D.4    Does the government encourage the use of open educational resources (OER) and facilitate open access to academic resources?

292 Leave a comment on paragraph 292 0     Indicator:  

  • 293 Leave a comment on paragraph 293 0
  • Educational policy framework concerning OER
  • Arrangements for access to academic and scientific resources by higher education institutions and students

294 Leave a comment on paragraph 294 0 D.5    Does the government require ISPs to manage network traffic in a way that is transparent, evenly applied and does not discriminate against particular types of content or content from particular sources?

295 Leave a comment on paragraph 295 0     Indicator:  

297 Leave a comment on paragraph 297 0 D.6    Does the government allow citizens to publish and access content through protocols and tools of their own choice, including virtual private networks (VPNs)?

298 Leave a comment on paragraph 298 0     Indicator:  

300 Leave a comment on paragraph 300 0 THEME E – OPEN DATA

301 Leave a comment on paragraph 301 0 Open data policies are concerned with making publicly available data that are gathered by governments (and, sometimes, other stakeholders) so that they can be used by any stakeholder.  Data protection arrangements are important in ensuring that open data sets do not undermine individual privacy rights.

302 Leave a comment on paragraph 302 0 E.1    Has legislation been enacted which requires open access to public data, and is that legislation implemented?

303 Leave a comment on paragraph 303 2     Indicator:  

  • 304 Leave a comment on paragraph 304 1
  • Existence of a legal framework for access to open data which is consistent with international norms and privacy requirements
  • Evidence concerning the extent to which open data resources are available and used online

305 Leave a comment on paragraph 305 1 E.2    Do government departments and local government agencies have websites which are available in all official languages?

306 Leave a comment on paragraph 306 0     Indicators:  

  • 307 Leave a comment on paragraph 307 2
  • Government policy to ensure provision of websites with appropriate language access
  • Proportion of government departments with websites (value/ranking in UNDESA online services index)
  • Quality of government websites (extent of language availability, quantity of content, availability of mobile version)
  • Proportion of adult citizens who have used e-government services within twelve months

308 Leave a comment on paragraph 308 1 E.3    Do government and other public stakeholders provide easy online access to publicly-held data sets, including machine-readable access to original data?

309 Leave a comment on paragraph 309 0     Indicator:  

  • 310 Leave a comment on paragraph 310 2
  • Legal framework concerning freedom of information
  • Number and quantity of open data sets made available by government and available through public access facilities
  • Availability of public access facilities that can be used for open data access in e.g. educational institutions and libraries
  • Data on the extent of use of open data, in total and within country

311 Leave a comment on paragraph 311 1 E.4    Are provisions concerning the location and duration of data retention consistent with international standards of data protection and supportive of effective access?

312 Leave a comment on paragraph 312 0 Indicator:  

314 Leave a comment on paragraph 314 0 E.5    Can individuals and organisations use and share public data without restriction?

315 Leave a comment on paragraph 315 0 Indicator:  

  • 316 Leave a comment on paragraph 316 2
  • Legal framework concerning freedom of information
  • Presence or absence of restrictions in government policy and practice on the use and sharing of public data

317 Leave a comment on paragraph 317 0 E.6    Are open data used by stakeholders in ways which have a positive impact on sustainable development?

318 Leave a comment on paragraph 318 0     Indicator:  

  • 319 Leave a comment on paragraph 319 0
  • Number of access requests for open data from government
  • Evidence of developmental use of open data in selected sectors (e.g. environment, health, agriculture, enterprise)

320 Leave a comment on paragraph 320 1 THE INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS – ACCESSIBILITY TO ALL

321 Leave a comment on paragraph 321 0 The ability of all to access the Internet lies at the heart of Internet Universality.  The reach of the Internet and Internet-enabled services has grown rapidly, but access to the Internet remains highly unequal.

322 Leave a comment on paragraph 322 0 The principle of accessibility to all reaches far beyond mere connectivity, for example, to include issues of affordability, content and capability.  This category is divided into six themes:

  • 323 Leave a comment on paragraph 323 0
  • Theme A is concerned with the legal and regulatory framework for universal access and related issues.
  • Theme B is concerned with technical and geographic connectivity.
  • Theme C is concerned with the affordability of networks and services.
  • Theme D addresses issues of equitable access.
  • Theme E is concerned with content and language.
  • Theme F is concerned with capabilities and competencies.

324 Leave a comment on paragraph 324 0 Data concerning access need to be disaggregated if they are to be fully understood and addressed in policy and practice.  Assessments should pay particular attention to the accessibility of the Internet for women, children and young people, relating findings concerning these to Themes A and B in Category X.

325 Leave a comment on paragraph 325 0 THEME A – POLICY, LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

326 Leave a comment on paragraph 326 0 The first theme within this category is concerned with the evidence base and the legal, regulatory and infrastructural framework for communications access.

327 Leave a comment on paragraph 327 0 A.1    Are effective arrangements in place to monitor access and use of Internet?

328 Leave a comment on paragraph 328 0     Indicator:  

329 Leave a comment on paragraph 329 0  

331 Leave a comment on paragraph 331 0  

332 Leave a comment on paragraph 332 0 A.2    Is there a legal right to access the Internet and online services?

333 Leave a comment on paragraph 333 0     Indicator:

335 Leave a comment on paragraph 335 0 A.3    Is there an independent legal or regulatory authority which seeks to implement universal access to communications and the Internet?

336 Leave a comment on paragraph 336 0     Indicator:  

338 Leave a comment on paragraph 338 0  

340 Leave a comment on paragraph 340 0  

341 Leave a comment on paragraph 341 0 A.4    Does the government have a policy and programme to implement universal access to reliable, affordable broadband, and is this effectively implemented?

342 Leave a comment on paragraph 342 0     Indicator:  

344 Leave a comment on paragraph 344 0  

346 Leave a comment on paragraph 346 0  

  • 347 Leave a comment on paragraph 347 0
  • Consideration should be given and cross-reference made to data/evidence for contextual indicator 3.D, which is concerned with the availability of electricity.

348 Leave a comment on paragraph 348 1 A.5    Are public access facilities available that provide access to the Internet for those who cannot afford or obtain personal access to the Internet?

349 Leave a comment on paragraph 349 0     Indicator:  

351 Leave a comment on paragraph 351 0  

  • 352 Leave a comment on paragraph 352 0
  • Numbers of telecentres, libraries and other public facilities offering Internet access, compared with proportion of the population without personal access

353 Leave a comment on paragraph 353 0  

354 Leave a comment on paragraph 354 0     Indicator:  

356 Leave a comment on paragraph 356 0  

  • 357 Leave a comment on paragraph 357 1
  • Numbers of telecentres, libraries and other public facilities offering Internet access, compared with proportion of the population without personal access

358 Leave a comment on paragraph 358 0  

359 Leave a comment on paragraph 359 0 THEME B – CONNECTIVITY AND USAGE

360 Leave a comment on paragraph 360 0 The availability of networks of sufficient capacity and reliability to enable people to access and use the Internet is fundamental to Accessibility for All.

361 Leave a comment on paragraph 361 0 B.1    Are broadband networks geographically available throughout the country?

362 Leave a comment on paragraph 362 0     Indicators:  

  • 363 Leave a comment on paragraph 363 0
  • Percentage of population covered by fixed broadband networks, including bandwidth tiers
  • Percentage of population covered by mobile broadband signal, bandwidth tiers (and compared with proportion covered by mobile cellular signal)
  • International Internet bandwidth per Internet user

364 Leave a comment on paragraph 364 0 B.2    What proportion of the population subscribes to communications/broadband services, and is this growing?

365 Leave a comment on paragraph 365 0     Indicators:  

  • 366 Leave a comment on paragraph 366 0
  • Number of fixed broadband subscriptions per hundred population, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Number of unique active mobile broadband subscribers per hundred population, by bandwidth, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Number of IP addresses within the country, per hundred population

367 Leave a comment on paragraph 367 0 B.3    What proportion of the population uses the Internet, with what frequency, and is this proportion growing?

368 Leave a comment on paragraph 368 0     Indicators:  

  • 369 Leave a comment on paragraph 369 0
  • Proportion of individuals who have ever accessed the Internet, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Proportion of households with Internet access at home, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Number of Internet users per hundred population, aggregate and disaggregated, by frequency of use
  • Number of social media (social networks, microblogs, user-generated video streaming) users per hundred population, aggregate and disaggregated, and by frequency of use
  • Number of visits to social media websites (defined as above) per hundred population

370 Leave a comment on paragraph 370 0 B.4    What barriers to access are identified by users and non-users of the Internet?

371 Leave a comment on paragraph 371 0     Indicator:

373 Leave a comment on paragraph 373 0 B.5    Is the volume of Internet traffic within the country growing significantly compared with other countries?

374 Leave a comment on paragraph 374 0     Indicator:  

376 Leave a comment on paragraph 376 0 THEME C – AFFORDABILITY

377 Leave a comment on paragraph 377 0 Connectivity is insufficient to enable people to access and use the Internet.  The extent to which they can do so also depends on its affordability.  Targets for affordability have been adopted by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the Broadband Commission for Digital Development and the Alliance for Affordable Internet.

378 Leave a comment on paragraph 378 0 C.1    Are mobile handsets capable of Internet connectivity affordable to all sections of the population?

379 Leave a comment on paragraph 379 0     Indicator:  

381 Leave a comment on paragraph 381 0 C.2    Is the cost of broadband access and use affordable to all sections of the population?

382 Leave a comment on paragraph 382 0     Indicators:  

  • 383 Leave a comment on paragraph 383 0
  • Cost of basic fixed broadband connection and use as a percentage of monthly GNI p.c.
  • Cost of basic mobile broadband connection and use as a percentage of monthly GNI p.c.

384 Leave a comment on paragraph 384 0 C.3    Are universal access/service arrangements in place which seek to reduce the cost of access for poor and marginalised groups within the population?

385 Leave a comment on paragraph 385 0     Indicators:  

387 Leave a comment on paragraph 387 0 THEME D – EQUITABLE ACCESS

388 Leave a comment on paragraph 388 0 There are significant digital divides within many national populations, associated with factors such as geography, gender, age, ethnicity and disability.

389 Leave a comment on paragraph 389 0 The questions and indicators in this category should be assessed alongside those concerned with overall connectivity and usage in Theme B, and alongside those concerned with Gender and with Children and Young People in Category X.

390 Leave a comment on paragraph 390 0 D.1    Are there significant differences in broadband access between urban and rural areas?

391 Leave a comment on paragraph 391 0     Indicators:  

  • 392 Leave a comment on paragraph 392 0
  • Geographical coverage in urban and rural areas, by level of bandwidth
  • Numbers of mobile broadband subscribers and of Internet users, in urban and rural areas, indicated in household surveys

393 Leave a comment on paragraph 393 0 D.2    Is there a gender digital divide in Internet access and use and, if so, is this gender divide growing, stable or diminishing?  (This question and indicators are also included in Category X Theme A.)

394 Leave a comment on paragraph 394 0     Indicators:  

  • 395 Leave a comment on paragraph 395 0
  • Proportions of adult women and men using the Internet, compared with other countries and with gender differences in income and educational attainment
  • Proportions of adult women and men with mobile broadband subscriptions
  • Survey data on patterns of Internet use, disaggregated by gender
  • Perceptions of barriers to Internet access and use, and of stated values of Internet access and use, disaggregated by gender

396 Leave a comment on paragraph 396 0 D.3    Do people in all age groups make use of the Internet to the same extent?

397 Leave a comment on paragraph 397 0     Indicator:  

399 Leave a comment on paragraph 399 0 D.4    Are people with disabilities able to make effective use of the Internet?

400 Leave a comment on paragraph 400 0     Indicators:  

  • 401 Leave a comment on paragraph 401 0
  • Existence of legal and regulatory provisions to promote access and use of Internet by people with disabilities
  • Extent of accessibility facilitation on government websites and e-government services
  • Proportion of those with and without disabilities who are using the Internet, adjusted to compensate for age differences

402 Leave a comment on paragraph 402 0 THEME E – LOCAL CONTENT AND LANGUAGE

403 Leave a comment on paragraph 403 0 Relevant content, including content which is generated locally and concerned with local issues, is necessary if people are to use the Internet in order to improve their quality of life or livelihoods, and to contribute to national development.  The availability of content in languages which are used by local populations is also critical to the value of Internet access, particularly for minority language speakers.

404 Leave a comment on paragraph 404 0 E.1    How many Internet domains are registered within the country and is this number growing?

405 Leave a comment on paragraph 405 0     Indicator:  

407 Leave a comment on paragraph 407 0 E.2    Is a substantial and growing volume of content about the country available online, including locally-generated content?

408 Leave a comment on paragraph 408 0     Indicator:  

410 Leave a comment on paragraph 410 1 E.3    Are services available which enable citizens to access and use local scripts and languages online?

411 Leave a comment on paragraph 411 0     Indicators:

413 Leave a comment on paragraph 413 0 E.4    Is there a substantial and growing volume of Internet content in diverse local languages, including locally-generated content?

414 Leave a comment on paragraph 414 0     Indicators:  

  • 415 Leave a comment on paragraph 415 0
  • Proportion of population whose principal language and script are available on leading online services
  • Availability of content on government websites in all languages with significant user groups within the population
  • Proportion of content generated in and read by citizens/residents on leading online services, by language, compared with proportion of total population using each language as their principal language

416 Leave a comment on paragraph 416 0 THEME F – CAPABILITIES / COMPETENCIES

417 Leave a comment on paragraph 417 0 Effective use of the Internet and Internet-enabled services requires certain capabilities and competencies on the part of users.  UNESCO has an established group of media and information literacy indicators, which are partly incorporated in this theme and provide a valuable resource for in-depth investigation.

418 Leave a comment on paragraph 418 1 F.1    Do school and higher educational curricula include training in ICTs and Internet, focused on effective and safe use, and are these curricula implemented in practice?

419 Leave a comment on paragraph 419 0     Indicator:  

  • 420 Leave a comment on paragraph 420 0
  • Policy concerning school curricula
  • Evidence of appropriate educational curricula at primary, secondary and tertiary levels
  • Proportion of teachers in primary and secondary schools with training in ICTs or ICT-facilitated education
  • Proportion of schools with computer-assisted instruction
  • Proportion of learners who have access to the Internet at school

421 Leave a comment on paragraph 421 1 F.2    Are media and information literacy programmes (including digital aspects) provided for adults by government or other stakeholders, and used by citizens?

422 Leave a comment on paragraph 422 0     Indicators:  

  • 423 Leave a comment on paragraph 423 0
  • Existence of media and information literacy programmes, and usage statistics, disaggregated by gender
  • Perceptions of media and information literacy among users

424 Leave a comment on paragraph 424 0 F.3    What proportion of the population and the workforce is skilled in the use of ICTs?

425 Leave a comment on paragraph 425 0     Indicators:  

  • 426 Leave a comment on paragraph 426 1
  • Proportion of Internet users with particular skills, by skill type, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Proportion of the workforce using ICTs in the workplace, by skill type, aggregate and disaggregated
  • Proportion of higher education students undertaking STEM and ICT courses, compared with global averages
  • Consideration should be given and cross-reference made to data/evidence for Category X Question C.7 which is concerned with the prevalence of the Internet in business.

427 Leave a comment on paragraph 427 0 UNESCO INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS – MULTISTAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION

428 Leave a comment on paragraph 428 0 The development of the Internet has been characterised by multistakeholder participation, which has drawn together governments, intergovernmental and international organisations, the private sector, civil society and the Internet technical and professional community and academia.  The goal of multistakeholder participation is to improve the inclusiveness and quality of decision-making by including in discussion and policymaking processes all those who have an interest in the development of the Internet and its impact on wider social, economic and cultural development.

429 Leave a comment on paragraph 429 0 This category is divided into three themes:

  • 430 Leave a comment on paragraph 430 0
  • Theme A is concerned with the overall legal and regulatory framework for participation in governance.
  • Theme B is concerned with national Internet governance.
  • Theme C is concerned with international Internet governance.

431 Leave a comment on paragraph 431 0 THEME A – LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

432 Leave a comment on paragraph 432 0 The overall framework for governance within the country provides the overall context within which policies and decisions concerning the Internet are made.

433 Leave a comment on paragraph 433 0 A.1    Does the government encourage participation by other stakeholders in national governance through the Internet?   (This concerns processes which are not themselves about the Internet.)

434 Leave a comment on paragraph 434 0     Indicators:  

436 Leave a comment on paragraph 436 0  

438 Leave a comment on paragraph 438 0  

439 Leave a comment on paragraph 439 0 A.2    Is government accountable to citizens and stakeholder communities?

440 Leave a comment on paragraph 440 0     Indicator:  

  • 441 Leave a comment on paragraph 441 1
  • Constitutional and institutional arrangements for government accountability, and evidence from credible sources that these are implemented in practice

442 Leave a comment on paragraph 442 0  

443 Leave a comment on paragraph 443 0 THEME B – NATIONAL INTERNET GOVERNANCE

444 Leave a comment on paragraph 444 0 This theme is concerned with the extent to which diverse stakeholder groups are involved in national-level policymaking concerned with the Internet.

445 Leave a comment on paragraph 445 1 B.1    Are there active associations of Internet professionals, consumers and other stakeholder communities?

446 Leave a comment on paragraph 446 0 Indicator:

448 Leave a comment on paragraph 448 0 B.2    Does the government actively involve other stakeholder groups in developing national Internet policies and legislation?

449 Leave a comment on paragraph 449 0     Indicators:  

  • 450 Leave a comment on paragraph 450 0
  • Existence of arrangements for multistakeholder consultation and involvement in national policymaking institutions and processes concerned with the evolution and use of the Internet
  • Numbers of non-governmental stakeholders actively participating, by stakeholder group, disaggregated by gender

451 Leave a comment on paragraph 451 0 B.3    Is there a national Internet Governance Forum which is open to all stakeholders, with active participation from diverse stakeholder groups?

452 Leave a comment on paragraph 452 0     Indicator:  

  • 453 Leave a comment on paragraph 453 0
  • Existence of national IGF
  • Participation data, aggregate and disaggregated, with particular attention to participation by selected groups (e.g. education ministries, SMEs, NGOs concerned with children, trades unions); and including arrangements for remote participation
  • Assessment of national IGF reports filed with global IGF Secretariat

454 Leave a comment on paragraph 454 0 B.4    Does the national domain name registry involve all stakeholders in its decision-making processes?

455 Leave a comment on paragraph 455 0 Indicator:

457 Leave a comment on paragraph 457 0 THEME C – INTERNATIONAL INTERNET GOVERNANCE

458 Leave a comment on paragraph 458 0 This theme is concerned with the extent to which diverse stakeholder groups within the country participate in international fora concerned with Internet governance.

459 Leave a comment on paragraph 459 0 C.1    Does the government actively involve other stakeholder groups in developing policy towards international Internet governance?

460 Leave a comment on paragraph 460 0     Indicator:  

462 Leave a comment on paragraph 462 0 C.2    Do government and other stakeholders from the country actively participate in major international fora concerned with ICTs and the Internet?

463 Leave a comment on paragraph 463 0     Indicators:  

  • 464 Leave a comment on paragraph 464 0
  • Number of participants from different stakeholder groups participating in global and regional IGFs, per million population, aggregated and disaggregated by stakeholder group and gender
  • Participation or otherwise of non-government stakeholders in official delegations to ITU, aggregated and disaggregated by stakeholder group and gender

465 Leave a comment on paragraph 465 0 C.3    Does the government and do other stakeholders participate actively in ICANN?

466 Leave a comment on paragraph 466 0     Indicator:  

  • 467 Leave a comment on paragraph 467 0
  • Membership of and active participation in ICANN’s Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC)
  • Membership of and active participation in ICANN constituencies, working groups and other fora.

468 Leave a comment on paragraph 468 0 UNESCO INTERNET UNIVERSALITY INDICATORS – CROSS-CUTTING INDICATORS

469 Leave a comment on paragraph 469 0 The final category included in the Internet Universality framework draws together five groups of cross-cutting indicators:

  • 470 Leave a comment on paragraph 470 0
  • Group A is concerned with gender equality.
  • Group B is concerned with children and young people.
  • Group C is concerned with sustainable development.
  • Group D is concerned with trust and security.
  • Group E is concerned with legal and ethical aspects of the Internet.

471 Leave a comment on paragraph 471 0 GROUP A – GENDER

472 Leave a comment on paragraph 472 0 Women in many countries face a number of barriers in gaining access to or using the Internet.  UNESCO believes that a distinct analysis on gender should form part of any assessment that is made using the indicators in this framework.  Assessments concerned with gender and the Internet should draw fully on questions and indicators throughout the ROAM categories in addition to these questions/indicators.  The Gender Inequality Index (contextual indicator 4.B) should also be considered.

473 Leave a comment on paragraph 473 0 A.1    Are the interests and needs of girls and women explicitly included in national strategies for Internet development, and effectively monitored?

474 Leave a comment on paragraph 474 0     Indicator:  

  • 475 Leave a comment on paragraph 475 1
  • National strategies include explicit consideration of a) women’s needs relating to the Internet and b) the potential of the Internet to support women’s rights and equality
  • Numbers of women and men in senior policymaking positions in government concerned with ICTs/Internet
  • Extent of disaggregation of available data on ICT access and use by gender
  • Existence of national mechanisms to monitor women’s inclusion in strategies for Internet access and use

476 Leave a comment on paragraph 476 0 A.2    Is there a gender digital divide in Internet access and use and, if so, is this gender divide growing, stable or diminishing?  (This question and some of its indicators are also included in Category X Theme A.)

477 Leave a comment on paragraph 477 0     Indicators:  

  • 478 Leave a comment on paragraph 478 1
  • Proportions of adult women and men using the Internet, by frequency, compared with other countries and with gender differences in income and educational attainment
  • Proportions of adult women and men with mobile broadband subscriptions, compared as above
  • Survey data on patterns of Internet use, disaggregated by gender
  • Perceptions of barriers to Internet access and use, disaggregated by gender
  • Perceptions of value of Internet access and use, disaggregated by gender
  • Proportions of women and men involved in internet governance issues

479 Leave a comment on paragraph 479 0 A.3    Do women and men participate to the same degree in use of online services?

480 Leave a comment on paragraph 480 0     Indicators:

  • 481 Leave a comment on paragraph 481 2
  • Proportion of Internet users using social media networks, disaggregated by gender
  • Proportion of adult citizens using mobile financial services, disaggregated by gender

482 Leave a comment on paragraph 482 1 A.4    Do the law, law enforcement and judicial processes protect women against online gender-based a) harassment and b) violence, without unduly impacting other human rights?

483 Leave a comment on paragraph 483 0     Indicators:  

  • 484 Leave a comment on paragraph 484 1
  • Incidence of gender-based a) harassment and b) violence experienced by women and girls
  • Evidence of government, law enforcement and judicial action to provide protection to women against online gender-based a) harassment and b) violence

485 Leave a comment on paragraph 485 0 A.5    Is the proportion of women in STEM training, employment and Internet leadership significant and growing?

486 Leave a comment on paragraph 486 0     Indicators:  

  • 487 Leave a comment on paragraph 487 0
  • Proportion of women in STEM employment, by level of skill
  • Proportion of women in STEM courses in higher education
  • Proportion of women in senior management positions in national Internet-related government departments/roles and Internet/communications businesses

488 Leave a comment on paragraph 488 1 A.6    Is accurate information about reproductive and sexual health freely available online?

489 Leave a comment on paragraph 489 0     Indicator:  

491 Leave a comment on paragraph 491 0  

492 Leave a comment on paragraph 492 0 GROUP B – CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE

493 Leave a comment on paragraph 493 0 The Internet has great potential to enable children to access information that they need and cannot readily obtain by other means, to participate in social groups, and to express their wishes, hopes and needs.  At the same time, there is widespread concern at threats to children’s wellbeing which may be facilitated by the Internet.  Initiatives such as Global Kids Online and agencies including UNICEF are working to establish ways of promoting the opportunities which Internet access and use open up for children while protecting them from harm.

494 Leave a comment on paragraph 494 0 Young people, aged between 18 and 24, are among the most enthusiastic and intensive users of the Internet worldwide.  The ITU estimates that 71% of those in this age group were online in 2017, compared with 48% of the global population.

495 Leave a comment on paragraph 495 0  

496 Leave a comment on paragraph 496 0 An additional question concerning differences in Internet access and use by age group is included in Theme D (Equitable Access) of Category A.

497 Leave a comment on paragraph 497 0 B.1    Does the government survey children and young people and/or consult them (and organisations concerned with children) about their use of the Internet?

498 Leave a comment on paragraph 498 0 Indicator:

500 Leave a comment on paragraph 500 0 B.2    What proportion of children (5-15 or 5-18) and young people (15-25 or 18-25) make use of the Internet?

501 Leave a comment on paragraph 501 0     Indicators:  

  • 502 Leave a comment on paragraph 502 0
  • Proportions of children and young people making use of the Internet, compared with other countries and with other age groups, disaggregated by gender and other social groups, and by frequency of use

503 Leave a comment on paragraph 503 0 B.3    How do children and young people perceive and use the Internet?

504 Leave a comment on paragraph 504 0     Indicators:  

  • 505 Leave a comment on paragraph 505 0
  • Perceptions of the Internet among children and young people, including barriers to use, value of use and fears concerning use
  • Data on use of the Internet by children and young people, compared with other age groups (e.g. data on location of use, main type of use, frequency of use)

506 Leave a comment on paragraph 506 0 B.4    Is there a legal and policy framework to promote and protect the interests of children online, and is this effectively implemented?

507 Leave a comment on paragraph 507 0     Indicator:  

  • 508 Leave a comment on paragraph 508 0
  • Existence of a policy framework and legal protections consistent with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), and evidence of effective implementation

509 Leave a comment on paragraph 509 0 B.5    Do primary and secondary schools have Internet and broadband access?

510 Leave a comment on paragraph 510 0     Indicators:  

  • 511 Leave a comment on paragraph 511 0
  • Proportions of schools with broadband and Internet access, disaggregated by tier (private/public; primary/secondary) and location (rural/urban)
  • Learner to computer ratio in schools, disaggregated as above

512 Leave a comment on paragraph 512 0 B.6    Do educational curricula and online services support children’s effective and safe use of the Internet?

513 Leave a comment on paragraph 513 0     Indicator:  

  • 514 Leave a comment on paragraph 514 0
  • Evidence of educational curricula focused on effective and safe use of Internet
  • Availability of online services to support children’s use of the Internet, including child protection services accessible by children
  • Usage data of online services to support children’s use of the Internet, including child protection services accessible by children

515 Leave a comment on paragraph 515 0 GROUP C – SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

516 Leave a comment on paragraph 516 0 The United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development sets out the global framework for international action on development until 2030.  It notes that ‘The spread of information and communications technology and global interconnectedness has great potential to accelerate human progress, to bridge the digital divide and to develop knowledge societies,’ and calls for the international community to ‘significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020.’

517 Leave a comment on paragraph 517 0 C.1    Do national and sectoral development policies and strategies for sustainable development effectively incorporate ICTs, broadband and the Internet?

518 Leave a comment on paragraph 518 0     Indicators:  

520 Leave a comment on paragraph 520 0  

  • 521 Leave a comment on paragraph 521 0
  • Inclusion of up-to-date policies and strategies for broadband and the Internet in national strategies to monitor and achieve the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
  • 522 Leave a comment on paragraph 522 0
  • Inclusion of up-to-date policies and strategies for broadband and the Internet in selected economic and social sectors (such as enterprise, agriculture, education, health)

523 Leave a comment on paragraph 523 0  

524 Leave a comment on paragraph 524 0 C.2    Does the government have an agreed policy on the management of e-waste and is this implemented effectively?

525 Leave a comment on paragraph 525 0     Indicators:  

527 Leave a comment on paragraph 527 0 C.3    Are there adequate arrangements in place for monitoring the development of the Internet and its impact on society?

528 Leave a comment on paragraph 528 0     Indicators:  

  • 529 Leave a comment on paragraph 529 0
  • Existence of national statistical office
  • Arrangements for statistical monitoring of Internet access and use, including household surveys
  • Arrangements for regular review and revision of policies relating to the Internet and its impact on sustainable development

530 Leave a comment on paragraph 530 0 C.4    Does the government have a long-term strategy to address new developments in information technology and incorporate these in development, with multistakeholder participation?

531 Leave a comment on paragraph 531 0 Indicator:

533 Leave a comment on paragraph 533 1 C.5    What proportion of adult citizens make use of major online services?

534 Leave a comment on paragraph 534 0     Indicator:  

535 Leave a comment on paragraph 535 0  

540 Leave a comment on paragraph 540 0  

541 Leave a comment on paragraph 541 0 C.6    What proportion of public service facilities have Internet access?

542 Leave a comment on paragraph 542 0     Indicators:  

544 Leave a comment on paragraph 544 0  

546 Leave a comment on paragraph 546 0  

547 Leave a comment on paragraph 547 0 C.7    What proportion of businesses, including small and medium sized businesses make use of the Internet and e-commerce?

548 Leave a comment on paragraph 548 0     Indicators:  

550 Leave a comment on paragraph 550 0  

553 Leave a comment on paragraph 553 0  

554 Leave a comment on paragraph 554 1 GROUP D – TRUST AND SECURITY

555 Leave a comment on paragraph 555 0 Issues of trust and security are increasingly important to the future of the Internet. As well as the threats to businesses and individuals posed by cybercrime, this theme addresses threats to critical infrastructure and databases which may come from diverse sources, including governments, non-state actors, criminal organisations and individuals.

556 Leave a comment on paragraph 556 0 F.1    Is there a national cybersecurity strategy, with multistakeholder engagement, including a national computer emergency response team (CERT) or equivalent?

557 Leave a comment on paragraph 557 0     Indicators:  

  • 558 Leave a comment on paragraph 558 0
  • Existence of cybersecurity strategy, with multistakeholder involvement, which is consistent with international standards
  • Establishment of national CERT or equivalent, and evidence concerning its effectiveness

559 Leave a comment on paragraph 559 0 F.2    Is there a legal and regulatory framework for consumer rights online?

560 Leave a comment on paragraph 560 1     Indicator:  

562 Leave a comment on paragraph 562 1 F.3    Have there been significant breaches of cybersecurity in the country within the last three years?

563 Leave a comment on paragraph 563 0     Indicator:  

  • 564 Leave a comment on paragraph 564 1
  • Number and extent of breaches, and numbers of citizens and businesses affected
  • Perceptions of Internet security
  • Arrangements for and data concerning phishing, spam and bots in national level domains

565 Leave a comment on paragraph 565 0 F.4    Are citizens and businesses taking action to reduce risks to their security and privacy?

566 Leave a comment on paragraph 566 0     Indicators:  

  • 567 Leave a comment on paragraph 567 0
  • Proportions of Internet users with uptodate malware protection
  • Evidence of business awareness of and contingency plans to counteract cybersecurity attacks
  • Extent to which encryption services are used by citizens and businesses
  • Consideration should be given and cross-reference made to data/evidence for Category R Question E.5, which is concerned with law and practice concerning encryption and anonymity

568 Leave a comment on paragraph 568 0 F.5    Do citizens and businesses show a high level of awareness of cybersecurity risks and a high level of trust in the security of the Internet?

569 Leave a comment on paragraph 569 0     Indicator:  

571 Leave a comment on paragraph 571 0 GROUP E – LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNET

572 Leave a comment on paragraph 572 0 There has been increasing concern about the use of the Internet in ways that adversely affect individual users or potentially undermine trust and confidence in the Internet.  Many issues in this context have both legal and ethical implications.

573 Leave a comment on paragraph 573 0 D.1    Is there a national policy framework concerned with legal and ethical challenges raised by usage of the Internet which is consistent with international rights agreements?

574 Leave a comment on paragraph 574 0     Indicator:

  • 575 Leave a comment on paragraph 575 1
  • Existence and assessment of national legal frameworks concerned with hate speech, harassment and discrimination online and offline, which are consistent with international rights agreements

576 Leave a comment on paragraph 576 0 D.2    Are there any multistakeholder or private sector self-regulatory bodies concerned with ethical aspects of the Internet?

577 Leave a comment on paragraph 577 0     Indicators:

578 Leave a comment on paragraph 578 0 Existence or otherwise of relevant multistakeholder or self-regulatory bodies

579 Leave a comment on paragraph 579 0 D.3    How do citizens perceive the benefits, risks and impact of the Internet within the country?

580 Leave a comment on paragraph 580 0 Indicator:

582 Leave a comment on paragraph 582 0 D.4    Do Internet users in the country report experiencing significant harassment or abuse at the hands of other Internet users which deters them from making full use of the Internet?

583 Leave a comment on paragraph 583 1     Indicator:

  • 584 Leave a comment on paragraph 584 1
  • Data on the extent to which Internet users report harassment or abuse, with particular attention to specific social groups (including women, ethnic and other minorities, and political activists)

585 Leave a comment on paragraph 585 0 D.5    Do Internet users in the country report experiencing significant levels of cybercrime?

586 Leave a comment on paragraph 586 0     Indicators:

  • 587 Leave a comment on paragraph 587 0
  • Number of reports of Internet-enabled crime by category per thousand people, compared with other countries
  • Number and trend of prosecutions for cybercrime
  • Perceptions of the Internet and Internet content (in household surveys and opinion polling)
  • Evidence from credible sources concerning the prevalence of online disinformation

588 Leave a comment on paragraph 588 0 D.6    Is there adequate protection for e-commerce consumers?

589 Leave a comment on paragraph 589 0     Indicators:

  • 590 Leave a comment on paragraph 590 0
  • Legal framework for online consumer protection
  • Number (and trend) of complaints and prosecutions related to online consumer protection
  • Perceptions of the adequacy of protection against online fraud and criminality

591 Leave a comment on paragraph 591 0 D.7    Do citizens believe that the content of online sources of information is determined or manipulated by the government, foreign governments, commercial or partisan interests?

592 Leave a comment on paragraph 592 1     Indicator:  

  • 593 Leave a comment on paragraph 593 0
  • Evidence from credible sources of government or other stakeholders seeking to disseminate disinformation
  • Perceptions of the Internet and Internet content (in household surveys and opinion polling)
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